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Thread: NEBULAR-RIPPLE HYPOTHESIS

  1. #1 NEBULAR-RIPPLE HYPOTHESIS 
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    NEBULAR-RIPPLE HYPOTHESIS
    By SUHAIL JALBOUT

    How did our solar system originate and why were most of the planets formed, to a certain degree, in a geometric progression?

    There are two schools of thought, namely: the catastrophic school and the nebular school. The catastrophic school has two theories. The first holds that the planets were formed from a readymade Sun. A huge object or a star from outer space passed close to our Sun. Due to the gravitational forces between the two bodies, immense clouds of material were torn out from the Sun and broke into small parts. Some fell back on the Sun, others were driven out of the solar system, while the rest formed the planets and other objects.{1} The second catastrophic theory is identical to the first except that it maintains that our Sun had a twin sister. A star or a huge object from outer space caused the twin star to explode while passing close to it. All the planets and the other objects were formed from its material.{2} However, there are many problems with the catastrophic theories, the most important being the extremely unlikely chance of a star or a large object traversing our solar system from outer space.

    Similarly, the nebular school has two theories. The first posits that very early in time, a huge disc shaped nebula existed in space. The disc rotated around its center and, due to gravitation, material was drawn inwards to form a huge sphere. This globular body heated up, ignited, and became a new star. The materials leftover around the star’s equator were also in the form of discs. The number of discs was equal to the number of planets. Due to gravitation, the planets and the moons were formed from the relevant disc material.{3} The second nebular theory follows the same line of logic, but says that the nebula was not originally in the form of a disc but that it was a huge cloud. However, its central region began to draw material inwards due to its gravitational pull. This caused the cloud to close on itself and heat the material at its core. As this occurred, it began to spin and flatten, eventually becoming a huge disc. Due to increased gravitational forces at the center, a huge globular body was formed there. As the density of the sphere at the core of the disc increased, it heated up, began to glow, and, eventually, became a star. The leftover was in the shape of a huge wheel at the Sun’s equator. Small clumps of matter began to form until the wheel contained billions of solid objects. Large clumps swallowed smaller ones and eventually the planets and their moons were formed.{4}

    Most astronomers nowadays favor the second nebular theory. However, there are at least two very important questions that need explanation:

    1) What caused the wheel to form into many planets and not one since it is only one disc?
    2) Why were most of the planets formed, to a certain degree, in a geometric progression?

    To answer these questions, I shall try to explain the events that may have happened after the nebula was converted into a sphere with a huge disc around its equator.

    To form more than one solar planet the disc should be converted into many rings. The number of rings should be equal to the number of planets. There are at least two factors that may contribute to the formation of rings, namely energy and gravitational ripples.

    As we know, our Sun is a nuclear station that has been active since the time it was born some 4.6 billion years ago. As a result of its nuclear reaction, large amounts of matter are ejected from the Sun into space. This activity is known, has been photographed during eclipses, and is thus a well-established fact. During high solar activity, the effect of its ejection causes disturbances in our communication systems and shutdown of electrical facilities in certain areas on the Earth. So, what happened just before the newly formed sphere ignited to become our Sun?

    The process of converting the sphere into a nuclear station commences at the core. This reaction expands from the core until it approaches the surface of the sphere. Because of its huge surface area, the nuclear process progresses in a chain reaction until the whole sphere glows and become our Sun. As a result, billions of tons of matter eject from the surface of the sphere in a sequence. Some of the ejected matter would disperse in space; others would fall back on the sphere while those emitted from a large area around the equator goes into the disc. Each circular emission from the latter creates a very powerful energy ripple in the disc; the speed of the emission being very close to the speed of light. Since energy and mass are interrelated, the energy ripple can be considered as a gigantic force pushing some of the material of the disc away from the sphere.

    In addition to the energy ripples, there are gravitational ripples that are also produced by the sphere. The sequential push of matter in the disc changes the gravitational balance between the sphere and the disc. This is equivalent to having gravitational ripples transmitted from the sphere in the same sequence as the energy ripples. The gravitational ripple will pull the leftover material in the disc towards the sphere. Consequently, the first circular energy and gravitational ripples will propagate throughout the disc. The former will push some of the material of the disc away from the sphere while the latter will pull immediately afterwards the leftover material in the disc towards the sphere. These powerful push-pull forces will detach material from the disc and form a circular ring at its extreme limits. Because the disc looses part of its mass, after the first ring is formed, the gravitational force of the sphere will shrink the disc until it’s centrifugal and centripetal forces equalize.

    When the second ejection of matter is transmitted from the sphere, the resultant energy and gravitational ripples will also create a second ring, at the edge of the remaining disc, following the same procedure. The new remaining portion of the disc will shrink again due to the gravitation force of the sphere. This process of push-pull will repeat itself on the portions of the disc until the ejected matter from the sphere cannot produce any more rings. The created rings will be in a dynamic state. Each ring will expand and contract until all the forces stabilize thus ending in a steady state condition. Since gas is lighter than small particles of matter, a large percentage of the disc’s gas is displaced by the ripples to the outer rings while the small particles of matter are positioned in the inner rings. The gravitational pull of the sphere is almost constant while the mass of the disc is a variable. As the disc is reduced in size, its material becomes more concentrated leading to a decrease in its shrinking rate. Thus, the process of contracting the material in the disc, after the formation of each ring, follows to a certain degree a geometric regression.

    The number of effective ripples that our Sun produced is 10. Hence, the disc was separated into 10 rings; I believe that this is a by-product of the size, property, and mass of our nebula. The planets were formed from the rings in accordance with the nebular theory. As expected, the outer planets are formed from mainly ice and gases while the inner planets are formed from mainly solid matter. In addition, the distribution of the planets around the Sun follows to a certain degree a geometric progression. The formed planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Bode (asteroid belt), Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Sevta (planet X), please refer to my article “Reviving Bode’s Law”.{5} In the same article there is a formula which I have developed, using Bode’s Law, to calculate the mean distance of each planet from the Sun.

    END NOTES
    1http://physics.gmu.edu/classinfo/astr103/CourseNotes/ECText/ch11_txt.htm
    2Ibid
    3Ibid
    4Ibid
    5http://thescienceforum.com/viewtopic.php?p=118457


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