Abstract

In frameworks special relativity phenomenon « relativity of simultaneity » has the third-rate, derivative status. The author, on the contrary, suggests considering it as a main, moreover, a unique phenomenon of the special relativity. Instead of Lorentz's transformations more simple variant of the transformations which have been not concerned with distortions of a spatial and time scale is offered. This variant eliminates paradoxes that irritate sensible people. That fact is underlined, that the suggested methodology strictly corresponds to materialistic outlook, as against plainly positivistic methodology on which till now it is based special relativity.

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The requirement of the second postulate of Einstein about sameness of speed of light in all inertial reference systems at once tunes up on singularity, means a deviation from canons of classical mechanics and should bring basic distortions in habitual for people of representation about space and time. So it is possible to consider, that the people starting studying special relativity, should be already morally ready to surprising metamorphoses.

However one of problems of a science consists in not was overzealous in quantity of these metamorphoses, in scale of novelty added with new theoretical representations. Not a secret that physicists-theorists are at times ready to bring down a huge billow of new absolutely mad hypotheses on heads of other people. The problem of the wide scientific community standing on a healthy world outlook platform consists in whenever possible to limit revolutionary aspirations of some excessively zealous authors, to reduce a degree of novelty and singularity of their concepts to pragmatically justified necessary minimum.

In opinion of the author of this article, today not all while is all right in special relativity in this respect. That is authors of special relativity have obviously overdone with scale of novelty, have run counter to the requirement of a principle of savings. It would be necessary to try to find for the given physical situation more simple theoretical explanation, less bulky and less burdensome for human thinking.

Historically at first the idea has come to heads of physicists that in conditions of relative movement of inertial systems with near-light speeds transformation of spatial characteristics is inevitable. So formulas of Lorentz's transformations were born. However people have the right to take an interest: why so have together decided to begin with spatial distortions, and, say, not with time? Apparently, so the human mind is arranged: it would be desirable to begin with small, close and clear. Probably, metamorphoses of space are perceived by people easier, than metamorphoses of time.

However as a result it has turned out, that one only transformation of space to manage it was not possible, it was necessary to subject to distortions time characteristics too. But else what distortions! According to Lorentz's transformations, in this situation double metamorphoses of time take place: time intervals are reduced, and there is a phenomenon of “relativity of simultaneity”. Thus, the initial "cautious" idea about transformation of space to which physicists have so amicably clung has generated the whole bouquet of shocking effects. We have a right to ask: and what would turn out, if have begun with other end? The author tries to prove below, that another initial installation leads in this situation to result more simple and sparing human thinking with a minimum of novelty and singularity.

At a statement of contents of special relativity it is usually accepted to find out a phenomenon « relativity of simultaneity » right at the beginning. But thus detection has for unknown reason only qualitative character, the funny fact of this relativity is established only. The quantitative formula was deduce much later, after calculations of "reductions" of lengths of spatial and time pieces according to Lorentz's transformations. As a result it turns out, that the given phenomenon has in special relativity as though the "third-rate", dependent status. As a rule, after that all at once forget about it.

The author sees a basic mistake in this fact. He considers that value of this phenomenon wrongly is underestimated. Actually it is the main thing here (and as it will be shown below – by the only thing). Therefore it should be investigated first of all and more deeply. And the concrete formula describing the given phenomenon, it is possible and it is necessary to deduce at once, it is direct from mental experiment with « Einstein's train »…

… A little about the nature of a phenomenon of a relativity of a simultaneity. Actually it is a question of relative displacement (shift) of events on some interval on a time scale at transition from one system to another. The size of this displacement depends on position in space (along an axis of mutual movement of systems). This displacement (we shall name it defect of discrepancy of events in the time) and leads to a phenomenon interesting us, is its quantitative characteristic…

… As we see, the result of our observer does not coincide with what ensues from Lorentz's transformations. It looks easier and thus is not concerned with deformation of a spatial and time scale. Who is right?

… Let's try to consider captiously this situation, remembering about the fact of a relativity of simultaneity. In system attached to interferometer the ray of light, having run over a shoulder of interferometer and having reflected from a mirror, after a while comes back in an initial point, a point of start.

In stationary system concerning which the interferometer it is displaced, this event – returning a light beam – occurs no longer in a point of start, and in other point because during time of travel Δt of this beam the interferometer itself was displaced in space on size l = V t. The important circumstance is found out here. According to a phenomenon of a relativity of simultaneity in this other point the defect of displacement (shift) of events on a time scale takes place. That is the event in this point occurs on clocks of one system earlier, than on clocks another. In particular, when process of movement in one system is already finished, in another it still continues!

There is very puzzling methodological problem: as in such conditions to broadcast events from one system in another how to carry out direct comparisons of spatial and time characteristics? There is a suspicion, that physicists till now insufficiently seriously thought over this question. Really: except for one initial moment all events in two moving systems do not synchronize, and the size of defect of discrepancy is not constant, continuously progresses with increase in relative displacement of systems in space.

The serious analysis of this problem leads to ascertaining the sad fact: it is impossible to reach a situation when the beginning and the end of any physical process synchronize in both systems. One moment, for example, the beginning or the end of process can coincide only. In the Michelson's experience the beginning coincides only, in the mental experiment with « Einstein's train » the end coincides only….

… Not very comforting conclusion inevitably follows from this situation: if it is impossible to combine in the time the beginning and the end of any process, all its intermediate phases and all local events occurring in its frameworks in two systems moving with near-light speed it is necessary to recognize goal-setting of direct comparison of dynamic, spatial and time characteristics of this process, to put it mildly, very problem. In this connection that charming simplicity which authors special relativity have shown at a derivation of transformations of Lorentz, in any way it is impossible to recognize methodologically correct. Obviously, these transformations should be reconsidered. It is necessary to subject special relativity to serious alteration. What thus will occur to its well-known effects and paradoxes?

…What turns out as a result? If to consider a situation methodologically correctly and from the very beginning to take into account the fact of a relativity of a simultaneity it is necessary to speak about impossibility of simultaneous fixing the ends of a rod in two systems at once. In conditions of movement of systems relatively each other this circumstance if to understand, does impossible the act of direct comparison of lengths of the spatial segments located along a line of movement.

Similar reasoning lead to a conclusion about impossibility of direct comparison as well time intervals as acts of measurement in conditions of continuous mutual displacement of systems are made besides in the points spased in space along a line of movement. Defect of discrepancy of events in these points does impossible the fact of simultaneous fixing of the beginning and the end of a time interval in two systems.

In such conditions it will be most reasonable to consider, that nothing unusual does not occur to a scale of space and a time scale in general. There is only a fact of displacement of events on a time scale. Thus, the basic impossibility of direct comparison of lengths of segments and time intervals forces to change radically the attitude to Lorentz's transformations and the well-known consequences special relativity. Due accentuation of effect of a relativity of a simultaneity leads us to necessity not only to reconsider all former calculations, but also to cancel all other "relativistic" effects. All these imaginary "reductions", paradox of "twins" and some other amusing things is necessary, as is sad, to throw out in a basket of history. In case of with "twins" all is simply: at their high-speed removal from each other, under the version of everyone, another is displaced on a time scale. However at returning the sign on speed varies on opposite and displacement occurs in the opposite direction so as a result it will be not revealed any difference in the age at the meeting.

So, the special theory of relativity gets now a kind of the theory only one phenomenon – spatially caused displacement of events on a time scale…

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