In quantum mechanics the uncertainty principle claims that position ‘x’ and momentum ‘p’ of an electron cannot be simultaneously known to high precision. The more precisely one property is known, the other can be known less.

In Werner Heisenberg’s equation:

dp dx >= h

- where dp = change of momentum; dx =change of position; h =Planck’s constant, the energy quantum

Heisenberg’s microscope

Heisenberg originally illustrated his uncertainty principle by using animaginary microscope as a measuring device in which photons modifies the momentum and position of electrons, and as a consequence only one of it can bedetermined with high precision. This way ‘dp’ and ‘dx’ is caused by outer force, that is the equation depicts work with a limit as a consequence of quantized energy.

F= dp/dt – where F is force and dt is the time of momentum change.

So the work on electron caused by photons: W = dp/dt dx >= h

However the classical equation of work has an inconsistency in this connection. In a peculiar way the unit of energy quantum (h) differs from the unit of energy (see: Planck constant – joule or joule second). Multiplying the left side by time, this inconsistency disappears, but at the same time ‘work’becomes mystical. The result remains correct until dt=1 but the equation ‘dp dx’ floats between work and power.

(In his microscope presentation Heisenberg didn’t take into consideration that the resultant of the forces attacking particles can be zero, so it is possible to measure position and velocity without modifying momentum. So ‘h’ determine only the lowest energy limit of interaction, not the limit of observation.)

The Copenhagen Interpretation

Niels Bohr interpretedHeisenberg’s formula as the deviation of momentum and position independent fromouter force claiming that the probability distributions are fundamental and irreducible. According to this as one of the deviation nears zero the other must near infinite value to produce ’h’. Why should particles deviate without outer force became an unresolved riddle which divided leading physicists.

(Bohr earlier developed a model of atom,in which electrons revolve in orbits around the atomic nucleus similar to the movement of planets around Sun. His model was attacked from many side, so making electron uncertain made his opponents uncertain too, saving his theory.)

The paradox of Copenhageninterpretation

The equation of momentum: p= mv

- where p= momentum, m=mass, and v= speed of mass

As v= dx/dt we can rewrite the equation as follows:

p=m dx/dt

It can be seen that momentum is derived from mass and velocity, so the precision of position is vital to the precision of momentum. (there is no momentum without position). However the Copenhagen interpretation claims that according to ‘uncertainty principle’ only one of them can be determined with high precision. This is the paradox of the Uncertainty principle.

Many think that Heisenberg’s formula is related only to electrons. However as it isn’t contain any reference to electrons, its scope must be regarded as universal.

While theoretical physicists are arguing for and against the probability of particles, the experimental physicists can determine the mass and velocity of particles by their momentum and positions without much ado. Giant particle colliders were built to accelerate and collide particles to research their components. Collisions need exact position and momentums of more particles at the same time.

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”I am opposing not a few special statements of quantum mechanics heldtoday, I am opposing as it were the whole of it, I am opposing its basic views that have been shaped 25 years ago, when Max Born put forward his probability interpretation, which was accepted by almost everybody…”

”I don't like it, and I'm sorry I everhad anything to do with it” - ErwinSchrödinger

”the actual quantitative physicists [are] wrong to consider a wave propagation without localization of the particle…” - Louis de Broglie

“God doesn'tplay dice…”. - Albert Einstein

The fog of ‘uncertainty’ hiding particles cannot be lifted almost in a hundredyears.

In fact it became denser during that time.

Sandor Fofai