# Thread: LiTE: Liangs Theory of Everything. Part 1: What is velocity? What is time?

1. LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.

Part 1 What is Velocity? What is Time?

It is well known that clocks on GPS satellites run at different rates than clocks on the ground. Such evidence of changed clock rates on faster moving frames of reference or in lower gravitational fields have validated Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. But Einstein’s theory also says that space can be warped and time traveled - at least theoretically. I don’t think it is possible to warp space or travel through time. Also, Einstein’s theories don’t explain why things move at the microscopic level or explain other phenomena such as momentum, energy, matter, space, etc. But how can I explain the clear evidence of time dilation and other phenomena predicted by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity? After thinking about these problems for a long time I think I might have found a simple solution to explain all the observed natural phenomena as well as to explain what space, matter, energy, etc. are as well as all the observations made by the various colliders. Indeed, I think I have found a way to tie everything together into a single theory of everything.

I begin the presentation of this theory with the following example to explain what is velocity and what is time.

Imagine a wide plane. In the center of this plane imagine 360 soldiers arranged in a circle. They are all sleeping. At a signal they all wake up and facing east begin marching for exactly 100 steps. Then they all stop at the same time and fall asleep immediately. They sleep for a period of 1,000 units of time. Each unit of time I call a tick. Then the soldiers wake up again, and again march for exactly 100 steps. The time taken to march 1 step is exactly 1 tick. The time measured by the tick is called the
universal time. The soldiers continue to repeat this cycle of sleeping, waking up and marching.

Velocity can be defined as the distance traveled per unit of time. If V represents velocity; N represents total distance traveled; and T represents the total time elapsed, then:

V = N / T.

The velocity of the soldiers can be calculated as:

V = number of steps / (time sleeping + time marching)

V = 100 / (1,000 + 100)

V = 0.0909 steps per tick

Let D represent the time sleeping or
dormancy, then

V = N / (D + N)

It is immediately clear that as N increases V approaches 1 as the limit. Later I will show that 1 step per tick is the speed of light and why nothing can exceed the speed of light.

Now, let’s embed a timekeeper with the group of soldiers who sleeps and marches with them. He has in his hand a counter which advances the count by 1 each time he clicks it. Now let’s set the soldiers marching again with a difference. Each time they stop they would all fire off their guns before falling asleep. And whenever the timekeeper hears the gunfire he would click his counter exactly once. Let’s call the counter the
nominal clock and the unit of nominal time it keeps the click.Let’s say the soldiers now spend 110,000 ticks of universal time marching and sleeping. At the end of the 110,000 ticks of universal time the nominal clock would have registered 100 clicks of nominal time. And the velocity based on the nominal clock is:

V(nominal) = 10,000 steps / 100 clicks

V(nominal) = 100 steps / click

Generally speaking, if K represents the number of cycles then,

V = KN / K(D + N)

K’s cancel out and (D + N) equal 1 click. Therefore,

V(nominal) = N

This means according to the nominal clock the velocity can increase indefinitely.

Now, let’s add another group of soldiers which is identical to the first group except it would march for 200 steps in each marching period. We call the group that march for 100 steps the Group 1 and the second group the Group 2. They are placed at the starting point and at the start of the universal clock they all fall asleep for 1,000 ticks of universal time and then waking began marching at their respective pattern. After 120,000 ticks of universal time they stop. At this time the nominal clock of Group 2 would register 100 clicks of nominal time while Group 1 nominal clock registers 109 clicks. The nominal time for Group 2 has slowed down. That is, we can say that the nominal time for Group 2 has dilated due to increased velocity.

Now, let’s add a third group, Group 3, which is identical to the first two groups except this group will not sleep but keeps marching without ever stopping. Let’s put Group 1 and Group 3 at the starting point and start the universal clock ticking. Group 1 immediately falls asleep while Group 3 immediately start marching. After 110,000 ticks of the universal clock we stop them. At this time the nominal clock of Group 1 shows 100 clicks of time. Group 1 has advanced 10,000 steps while Group 3 has advanced 110,000 steps. Group 3 is 100,000 steps ahead of Group 1. If we convince Group 1 that it has not moved then it would appear to it that Group 3 has moved 100,000 steps in 100 clicks of time or 1,000 steps per click. That is, the velocity of Group 3 appears to Group 1 to be 1,000 steps per click of its (Group 1’s) nominal clock.

Next, let’s put Group 2 and Group 3 at the starting point and repeat the operation except this time we let 120,000 ticks of the universal time expire before we stop them. The nominal clock of Group 2 would show 100 clicks and it would have advanced 20,000 steps. And if we convince Group 2 that it did not move then it would appear to it that Group 3 has advanced 100,000 steps in 100 clicks of time and that the velocity of Group 3 is 1,000 steps per click of its (Group 2’s) nominal time.

From this we can see that the velocity of Group 3 remains the same at 1,000 steps per click of the respective nominal clock of Group 1 and Group 2. By the same token the velocity of light remains constant when viewed from whatever frames of reference. Of course, if Group 3 march in a direction other than that parallel to the other two groups the result will not be the same. But this difficulty can be overcome as I will explain later so that the velocity of light will always appear be the same no matter which direction it travels.

Summing up the above we can make the following conclusions. There are 2 manifestations of time. The universal time is unchanging and probably cannot be directly measured. The nominal time is measured by artificial devices whose operations are altered by velocity. One way to look at the nominal time is to think of it as measuring the metabolism of the particle. Since the metabolism of the particle is affected by velocity, becoming slower with increasing velocity, the time measured also slows down with increasing velocity. One example is to think of measuring time with heartbeat. If the heartbeat slows down with increased exertion then the person making the greater exertion would measure slower time.

Velocity also can be measured in 2 ways. The first is the real velocity timed with the universal clock. The maximum velocity is 1 step per tick. But since we cannot measure the universal time we cannot directly compute the real velocity. The second way to define velocity is by using the nominal clock. Since the nominal clock can slow down with increasing velocity, the nominal velocity is subjective and can be infinite.

At this point the readers will doubtless have many questions and objections. How do I know there is a dormancy period? How do I know each step is exactly the same distance and takes exactly the same amount of universal time? I will elaborate and explain these and other questions in subsequent parts. In the next part I will answer the question, “What is space? What is matter?”  2.

3. I don't think you have anything right, specially contradicting basic physics, E=MC2 does indeed describe matter and energy, why we could predict the atomic bomb, and the germans failed at that.  4. Originally Posted by Liang1a It is well known that clocks on GPS satellites run at different rates than clocks on the ground. Such evidence of changed clock rates on faster moving frames of reference
Or slower moving frames of reference than clocks on the ground...

You did know that, didn't you?

I would suggest you do some research on the Hafele-Keating experiment. In fact, if you had actually researched the subject of time-dilation thoroughly, you wouldn't even be making your proposal as you would already know you are wrong.  5. "I can't be wrong, I made it up myself"  6. LiTE: Liangs Theory of Everything
Part 2: What is space? What is matter?

As far as I know everybody thinks of space as being empty. I think it is full of some kind of building blocks that I call space units or su for short. At this point you may ask reasonably if space is full then how can anything move through it? In answer to this question, let me give the following example.
Think of a stack of paper cups. Some water is put into the topmost cup and you are asked to move that cup to the bottom of the stack. The most obvious thing for you to do is to switch it with the cup just beneath it so that it sinks one level down. And as you keep switching the cup with the water with the one immediately beneath it, it will ultimately end up at the bottom of the stack. Now lets put the cup with the water at the top again. But this time instead of switching the cups you drill a small hole in the bottom of the cup so that the water drains down into the next cup. And if you successively drill a small hole in the bottom of each cup then the water will ultimately flow into the bottommost cup. And if given that the cups are all identical then practically speaking you have moved the cup with the water to the bottom of the stack without actually moving any of the cups.
So, what kind of things fill the space? Frankly, I dont know. But one way to imagine it is as follows. Imagine at the beginning there is one single point. The point somehow splits into two. Then it splits again into four - 2 by 2. Then it splits again into eight which forms a closed loop. Then each point of the loop doubles to double the total number of points in the closed loop until it forms a very large closed loop of string. Then at some point the string begins to fold into identical knots or nodes. Each knot or node is folded or intertwined with many neighboring knots or nodes so that things can pass from one knot or node to a neighboring knot or node in any direction. Each of these knots or nodes is a space unit. And the entire space is filled with these space units without any empty space at all.
Another way is to imagine a single point splitting into many points which form a sphere. Then the sphere split into 2 identical spheres which closely overlap at many points. The spheres keep splitting until each sphere has many overlapping neighbors. And the total volume of the spheres defines the space.
Of course, these are only my own speculations. The real shape and form of the space units may be something totally different. But the space units should have at least the following characteristics or capabilities. A space unit should be able to assume many states. It should be able to transmit or project its state entirely or a subject of it to a neighboring space unit. It should be able to reset itself to a neutral or default state. The states of the space unit should allow memories and rules of transition from one state to another state. Put in another words, each space unit is functionally a small computer processor that can be loaded with a small program that directs its action.
And this brings me to the question of what is matter? Matter, as you might have guessed, is the bits of programming that can inhabit a space unit or move from space unit to space unit. Each type of programming defines what tasks can be performed and under what conditions. That is, the kind of programming defines the kind of matter it is. The programming will have some kind of memory that tells it when and what to do such as how long it should stay in its current space unit (dormancy period) or in which direction to move and for how many space units or steps. The programming moves by projecting a copy of itself with maybe some modifications into a neighboring space unit and then deleting the copy in the current space unit. The programming can be changed by interacting with another programming that happens to be in the same space unit.  7. Originally Posted by Liang1a As far as I know everybody thinks of space as being empty.

Nope. Not at all. Quite the opposite. In fact, if you had actually researched the subject thoroughly, you wouldn't even be making your proposal as you would already know you are wrong.  8. Liangs Theory of Everything.
Part 2.1: Why space cannot be warped.

As explained in Part 2 space are composed of space units which are physical things. As such they cannot be warped without each being altered drastically in shape, size and composition and internal structure which will lead them to be changed in their performance as state machines. Therefore, they cannot be changed without destroying the universe as we know it. Furthermore, as will be explained later, gravity are matter units that only inhabit the space units and operate within them like unique patterns of waves in a pond with fixed islands or programs in a computer processor. Water sloshing around a pond cannot change the shape and size of the pond or the locations of the islands. Nor can the software programming change the hardware of the computer. As soon as the size and shape of the pond or the location of the islands were changed the pattern of the waves also change and can no longer be sustained. Similarly if the computer hardware were changed then the software can no longer be executed. Put in another way, as soon as space units were changed, gravity units would simply disappear. Therefore, no matter unit can alter any space units. And even if they could, they will only destroy themselves in the process immediately and the alteration process cannot spread. Therefore, space cannot be warped.  9. No need to start a new thread for this; should be moved to the original one. So should Part 2; especially since there has been no discussion to speak of.  10. Liangs Theory of Everything.
Part 3: What are particles?

A particle is a collection of matter units that act as a coordinated unit. You can imagine a particle as a sphere of one or several layers of space units thick where each space unit is inhabited by one or more complementary matter units. The simplest example is a ball of one space unit layer thick where each space unit is inhabited by the same kind of matter unit. The matter units in the particle are all identical except possibly some differences to enable each to be identified uniquely within the particle.

For example, think of the circle of soldiers in Part 1 where the frontmost soldier may be marked with the number 1 on his helmet. Then the soldier to his right may be marked number 2 and so on. The numbers mark the position of the soldiers within the circle. There may be corresponding markers within the matter unit to mark the position of each within the particle. The ability to identify each matter unit within the particle may be important in the process to synchronize the matter units so that they form a perfect sphere or whatever shape they normally form; to synchronize them in starting and stopping in movements; to perform their various activities in proper orders, etc. I think it is reasonable to suppose that there must be some kind of synchronization process since the matter units may wonder off in various directions after some time if there were no periodic synchronization operation.

Take the circle of soldiers and consider how they can synchronize themselves. One way is for Soldier 1 to send out a messenger carrying information such as his soldier number, the direction he is facing, and a count of the number of steps he (the messenger) has taken, etc. For example, if the distance between Soldier 1 and Soldier 181 is 115 steps, the counter is first set to 0 and then the messenger takes the first step. Then he increments the counter to 1 and then takes the second step. So by the time he gets to Soldier 181 his counter should read 115 if Soldier 181 is where he is supposed to be. If the counter registers 116 then Soldier 181 is a step too far away and should take a step forward; if the counter registers 114 then Soldier 181 is a step too close and should take a step backward. And the direction data can be compared. For example, if the messengers direction pointer says 90 degrees while Soldier 181s direction pointer says 91 degrees then he should rotate 1 degree to the left, etc. Of course, this is a simple example and obviously cannot synchronize the circle of soldiers if they are seriously disarrayed. But the point is that by using messengers carrying sufficient data in some effective procedures the group can be synchronized to the degree desired.

I had said in Part 2 that a matter unit can project a subset of itself into a neighboring space unit. The subset of a matter unit can be called a messenger unit and carries information to other matter units of the particle to allow them to synchronize themselves with respect to each other and the unit as a whole. The messenger unit moves by projecting a new copy of itself into the next space unit and then the old copy in the current space unit is deleted. The new messenger unit may be changed in some way to reflect the moves it has made as it moves through the intervening space units to the matter units in other parts of the particle. The messenger unit can project more than one copy of itself at a time. For example, it can project a circle of messenger units into the several neighboring space units ahead of it. So instead of a single messenger unit moving forward to reach a single matter unit at the other end of the particle you have a spreading spherical surface moving forward to reach all the matter units in the particle. Each of the matter units in the particle can send out messenger units to reach all the other matter units in the particle. All the matter units in the particle can then know where they are with respect to all the other matter units within the particle because each messenger unit is uniquely identified as to which matter unit had originated it so they can adjust themselves and update their memories to synchronize themselves as a whole. The result is a perfectly synchronized unit that can perform their activities in properly synchronized order.

Another way to synchronize the matter units within the particle is for a single matter unit to be identified as the primary matter unit. The primary matter unit can then send out messenger units into all matter units adjacent to it to synchronize them. Then the synchronized matter units can send out messenger units into all matter units adjacent to them to synchronize them. The process continues until all the matter units of the particle are synchronized.

More than one iteration of synchronization may be necessary to achieve the desired level of perfection. After each iteration of synchronization, all the matter units can project a single messenger unit in the direction of the center of the sphere. The single messenger unit remains single. In other words if there are N matter units in the particle then N messenger units will arrive at the center of the sphere where they are summed algebraically. If all the matter units in the particle are perfectly aligned and synchronized then all the N messenger units will arrive at the center of the sphere at the same tick of time. When they are algebraically summed the correct result will update each of the messenger units and reflect them back to their respective originating matter unit. When the messenger unit returned to its originating matter unit it will signal to it that the particle is now perfectly synchronized and trigger a countdown. At the end of the countdown the particle moves as a synchronized unit for the number of steps it is supposed to make.

There are two kinds of stable particles which are the protons and electrons. There are other kinds of unstable particles which I will explain later at the proper place.

To sum up the above, a particle is a collection of matter units that act as a coordinated and synchronized whole. It spends some time doing housekeeping tasks such as synchronization and repairing or replacing damaged matter units. The time spent in housekeeping tasks is the dormancy time described in Part 1.

This concludes this part.  11. Liangs Theory of Everything.Part 4: What are forces?

Gravity.

Physicists think gravitational force is controlled by space and distance. I think gravitational force is controlled by the splitting of the gravity messenger units. That is, by the number of times a gravity messenger unit has split since its creation by its originator matter unit. To prove this I will first demonstrate there is an equivalence between the distance and the surface area of the gravitational sphere, that is, the sphere that is at a distance r from the center of the gravitational source. In demonstrating this I would have proven that gravitational force is a function of the surface area. Then I will demonstrate that the surface area of a gravitational sphere is a function of the number of times the gravity messenger units have split thus proving the gravitational force is a function of the number of times a gravity messenger unit has split.

It has been determined by experimental results that gravitational force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

G2 = G1 / d^2

Where G2 represents gravitational force at a distance r2 from the origin of the gravitational force; G1 represents a known gravitational force at a certain distance r1 from the origin of the gravitational force; d represents the ratio of r2/r1.

G2 = G1 / d^2 = G1 / (r2/r1)^2

For example, if r2/r1 is 2 then d^2 is 4 and the gravitational force at r2 is ¼ of G1.

The surface area of a sphere is calculated by the following equation:

S = 4 pi r^2

Where S represents the surface area of the sphere; pi is the
ratio of a circle's circumference to its diameter; and r is the distance from the center of the sphere to the surface. If the surface area of the sphere is increased k times then r is increased square root of k times.

S2 = 4 pi (r2^2)

S1 = 4 pi (r1^2)

S2 = k S1

4 pi (r2^2) = k 4 pi (r1^2)

r2^2 = k (r1^2)

r2 = (square root of k) r1

r2/r1 = (square root of k)

But d = r2/r1, therefore,

d = (square root of k).

But as we have seen from the equation to compute the strength of the gravitational force r2/r1 is equal to d. From this we can write the equation for gravitational force as

G2 = G1 / d^2

G2 = G1 / (r2/r1)^2

G2 = G1 / (square root of k)^2

G2 = G1 / k

It is immediately clear that the gravitational force is inversely proportional to the surface area of the gravitational sphere. This means that if the surface area of the gravitational sphere is doubled then the gravitational force is halved; and if the surface area of the gravitational sphere is quadrupled then the gravitational force is quartered. Generally this means if the surface area of the gravitational sphere is increased k times then the gravitational force is reduced to 1/k with respect to the reference point. Putting it in another way, the gravitational force is inversely proportional to the surface area. That is, the gravitational force is a function of the surface area.

Next I will demonstrate the surface area of a gravitational sphere is a function of the number of times the gravity messenger units have split.
Imagine each of the matter units of a particle simultaneously project a messenger unit outward. As the messenger units begin to move away from the particle it would look like a balloon inflating. As the balloon inflates the surface area would increase and there would appear gaps between the space units inhabited by the gravity messenger units as each gravity messenger unit inhabits only one space unit at one time and the area covered by each space unit remains 1 sq. unit without change. As each messenger unit moves forward it would test the space units neighboring the space unit it is currently inhabiting to see if they are occupied by other messenger units. If not then it would split and project a copy of itself into any uninhabited space unit. In other words, each time a gravity messenger unit split it will end up with 2 copies of itself. Before splitting a messenger unit would increment a counter to record the number of splits it has undergone so that both resultant copies would register the same number of splits.

If the splitting of any one gravity messenger unit results in 2 gravity messenger units it immediately follows that if all the gravity messenger units split then the total number of gravity units would double. This means the total surface area of the gravity sphere would double. From this I have derived the following equation:

S = S0 2^n

Where S is the surface area; S0 is the surface area of the first layer of gravity messenger units as they stand on the matter units that created them; n is the number of times each gravity messenger unit has split. This means the surface area of the first layer is S0 since n is 0 because no gravity messenger unit has split at this time. After all the gravity messenger units have split once, n is equal to 1 and the surface area is doubled. And whenever all the gravity messenger units have split one more time, n is incremented by 1 and the total surface area is doubled. Since this is true for n equal to 0, n equal to 1, and if it is true for any n then it is also true for n + 1, therefore it must be true for all real number n. This proves that the surface area of the gravitational sphere is a function of n which is the number of times all the gravity messenger units have split.

I have proven above that

G = G1 / k

Where k is the multiple of surface area associated with G1. This equation means that if k is 2 then the surface area is doubled and the gravitational force is halved. If k is 4 then the surface area is quadrupled and the gravitational force is quartered. In fact we can replace k with 2^n so that if k = 2, then n = 1; if k = 4 then n = 2, etc. For example, if k = 7 then n = 2.81. This is the same as

(2^2) x (2^0.81) = 4 x 1.7411 = 7

The above means all the gravity messenger units have undergone 2 splits and 74.11% of them have undergone a third split. Therefore, we can finally write the equation of the gravitational force as a function of the number of splits:

G = G0 / 2^n.

We see that this is true for n = 0 when each gravity messenger unit is at its full strength; it is true for n = 1 then all the messenger units have undergone 1 split and the gravitational strength is reduced by half. It is also true for any n + 1 because whenever all the gravity messenger units split one more time the gravitational force is reduced by half. This proves gravitational force is a function of the number of splits of the gravity messenger units where the gravitational strength is reduced by half for each time the gravity messenger unit is split.

Each gravity messenger unit carries with it a direction pointer which points the way the unit moves. Whenever a gravity messenger unit encounters a matter unit it would interact with it by changing its direction by pivoting the direction pointer of the matter unit to the direction from which the gravity messenger unit is coming from. For example, if the matter unit is moving to the east and the gravity messenger unit is moving to the north then the direction pointer of the matter unit is pivoted to the south by a degree depending on the strength of the gravitational force as indicated by the number of splits the gravity messenger unit has undergone.
The gravitational strength of a gravity messenger unit also affects the number of steps a matter unit will advance during any period. The number is increased or decreased depending on the angle between the direction pointer of the gravity messenger unit and the direction pointer of the matter unit.

Since the gravity messenger units only carry information to update the data of the matter units. These data have no effect on the space units through which they pass. Therefore, it is unlikely if not impossible for them to change the structure of the space units. In other words, it is impossible for gravity to warp space.  12. LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.
Part 4.1: What are forces?

Gravity (continued).

From the above we can conclude that gravity messenger units together form an organized spherical structure where the members of a gravity structure communicate with each other to maintain a smoothly expanding gravity sphere. In other words, what the physicists call a graviton is in fact a spherical expanding structure composed of many constantly increasing gravity messenger units.
Since each gravity sphere is an organized spherical structure, it would argue for the greater likelihood that its progenitor is also an organized spherical structure. This is because a gravity messenger unit is a subset of its progenitor matter unit. It is like a reduced set of DNA or a reduced set of a computer program. Therefore, whatever DNA that can be found in the subset must also be found in the parent. This means that if the reduced set of a certain genome expressed a certain characteristic then the parent whole set of genome must also express the same characteristic. So if the gravity messenger units expressed the characteristic of a spherical structure then it is likely if not absolutely certain that the parent matter units that created the gravity messenger units must also express the same characteristic of a spherical structure. From this we can be confident that matter particles such as protons that emit gravity spherical structures are themselves organized coherent spherical structures.
If protons are spherical structures composed of many matter units then it is reasonable to think they would require some tasks to be performed to maintain their integrity in shape and size. Otherwise, they can become disorganized and fall apart. Since it takes time to perform such housekeeping chores, it is reasonable to think there is a dormant period when the proton structures remain stationary and immobile as these housekeeping tasks are performed. This is the rationale for theorizing that there is a dormant period when calculating the velocity of protons.
Since a proton is a spherical structure composed of many matter units, it may be possible that some of the matter units can become damaged and need to be replaced. If these damaged matter units accumulated inside the proton sphere then they can damage the structure or hinder its movement. Therefore, it is desirable to get rid of these debris. One way may be to pull them into the center of the sphere and then neutralize or reset them or otherwise make them disappear. One way to do this is for each matter unit of the proton sphere to emit a messenger unit toward the center. When all the messenger units meet at the center they are transformed into gravity messenger units and reflected back. When a gravity messenger unit encounters a debris matter unit it would cause it to move toward the center where it is neutralized and disappeared under the influence of a special matter unit that has been created as a garbage disposer unit and that last for the duration of the dormant period. The gravity messenger units subsequently simply pass out of the proton sphere and continue to expand outward indefinitely as a spherical structure and continue to pull everything they encounter to the direction from which they come.
It has been observed that gravitational force is stronger at a great distance than expected. One way to explain this by my theory is as follows. There are many gravitational spheres expanding from all the protons in space objects such as stars and planets. In any one space unit at any time there may be as many gravitational messenger units as there are protons in the entire universe. Many of the gravitational spheres emanating from a small locality after they have traveled for a long distance are almost identical in the direction they travel and in their gravitational strength. It may be possible for these almost identical gravitational spheres to merge into one. But in the process of merging the gravitational strength is rounded up. As explained above, the strength of the gravitational force depends on the number of splitting, N. The smaller N is the greater the strength of the gravitational force of the gravitational sphere. Therefore, if N is rounded down then the gravitational force is increased. To see this, please consider the example below:
G1 = G / 2^N.1
G2 = G / 2^N.2
G3 = G1 + G2 = (G 2^N.1 + G 2^N.2) / 2^N.1 x 2^N.2
Round N.1 and N.2 down to N.
G3 = 2 G 2^N / 2^2N
G3 = 2 G / 2^N
Since 2^N < 2^N.1 < 2^N.2 the resulting G3 is bigger than the sum of G1 + G2. It could be that before merging can take place the gravitational force must fall below a certain minimum. That is, N must be above a certain critical number. This may be why gravitational force can appear to be bigger than expected only when it has fallen below a very small amount. It is because they cannot merge until they have fallen below the minimal gravitational level or until the N has reached above a certain critical level.  13. LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.
Part 4.2: What are forces?

Electric-forces.

The function of electric forces is similar to that of gravitational force. In the case of gravitational force the function is to pull the trash matter units away from the inner surfaces of matter spheres and into the center of the sphere so that they can be neutralized or disintegrated. In the case of the electric forces the function is to sweep any trash matter units on the outer surfaces of matter spheres away so that they don’t interfere with the operation and movement of the matter spheres. To this end, at a designated time all the matter units of a matter sphere such as a proton would each project a subset of itself into the space unit directly next to it on the outer surface of the sphere. Each subset of the matter unit then becomes a messenger unit which causes all matter units of the same kind as its originator it encounters to pivot away from the direction from which it travels. That is, it pushes what it can directly away from its progenitor. As the electric messenger unit travels gaps would open up between itself and its immediate neighbors just as it happens with gravitational messenger units. And just as with gravitational messenger units which fill in the gaps by splitting itself and projecting a new gravitational unit into the empty space unit, an electric messenger unit will test its neighboring space units. If it finds an empty space unit unoccupied by any messenger units of its own proton progenitor then it would split and project a copy of itself into the empty space unit. And before it splits it would update a split counter that keeps track of the number of splits.

In many ways an electric force messenger unit is the same as a gravity messenger unit. They are both expanding spherical structures made of many messenger units. They are different in their respective functions. The function of the gravity messenger unit is to pull damaged matter units to the center of the sphere where they are made to disappear while the function of the electric force messenger unit is to push damaged matter units away from the matter sphere as well as to push away other matter spheres away in order to prevent collision. Because gravity messenger units perform their primary function inside the matter sphere they don’t need much strength beyond the radius of the matter sphere. But the electric force messenger units need to be much more powerful in strength because they need to act on matter spheres farther away from their originating matter spheres. This is why gravitational forces are weak while electric forces are much stronger. Their respective functions also make them different in terms of the direction they pivot matter units they encounter. Gravitational messenger units pivot matter units they encounter to the direction from which they travel while electric force messenger units pivot matter units of the same kind as their progenitors they encounter away from the direction from which they travel, i.e., away from their progenitors. Other than these superficial differences gravitational force and electric forces are identical in the fact that they are subsets of their parental matter units and that they are spherical structures that can maintain themselves as they expand with diminishing strength due to the number of times they split.

However, there is one major difference between gravitational force and electric force. When an electron and proton come within a certain distance of each other their electric force messenger units can combine in the presence of other messenger units to become a temporary unstable matter sphere. I call this temporary unstable matter sphere a
sepcon for separator-connector. Imagine two spherical clouds of smoke approaching each other and then merge into each other. The intersected portion forms a disc that is thickest at the center and then tapers to a sharp circular edge. So you have the proton at one side and the electron at the other side with the sepcon disk in the middle. One side of the sepcon disk faces the proton and the other side faces the electron. The side facing the proton will be under the influence of data messenger units from the proton while the other side is under the influence of data messenger units from the electron.

As I explained my theory before, the member matter units of a matter sphere communicate with each other to coordinate the size and shape of the sphere and the direction and number of steps to take when they move. Each of these characteristics is coordinated by means of messenger units. When these messenger units delivered their data to the matter units they don’t disappear but continue outward in an expanding sphere carrying their data with them. When they encounter a temporary unstable matter sphere or sepcon their data are used to turn the sepcon units into a cohesive structure that march in lock step with their progenitor proton and electron.
The effect of the sepcon is to keep the proton and electron from colliding into each other while at the same time keep them from drifting apart. Imagine a pole with a dog collar at each end. Imagine a dog is tethered to each end by the dog collars. The collars will keep the dogs from running away from each other while the pole keeps the dogs from getting close enough to bite each other. Therefore, the pole-collars system functions as a separator and connector with respect to the dogs. The sepcon functions the same way with respect to the proton and electron. I will explain more about how this is done in the next section.  14. Would it be overstating the case to say that this thread is total nonsense?  15. No, not at all.  16. LiTE: Liangs Theory of EverythingPart 4.3 What are forces. Sepcon forces.

In the last part I had explained that a sepcon is made of a combination of a positive electric force and a negative electric force. In other words a sepcon matter unit is made of a combination of a negative electric force message unit of an electron and a positive electric force message unit of a proton. Since these two message units contain opposing messages and data it can be expected that a matter unit created out of a combination of these two opposing forces will emit force message units that would alternatively act like a negative electric force and a positive electric force. To illustrate this I will give an analogous example using two sorting subroutines of a computer program.

One of the subroutines sort by comparing two numbers and push the bigger one to the back or lower down. Suppose the input consist of 10 numbers 1 to 10 arranged randomly. Then after 9 comparisons the biggest number or 10 will be placed in the bottom-most or rear-most position. Then another 9 comparisons (or 8) can be done which will result in the second largest number or 9 being put in the second position from the bottom or from the rear. After 9 iterations the 10 numbers will be arranged in ascending order.
The other subroutine does the opposite and push the smaller number to the back after each comparison. And after 9 iterations result in sorting the 10 numbers in descending order. Imagine the computer program written on computer cards like 30 or 40 years ago and somebody dropped the box of cards and the two subroutines got mixed together. If we run this program (obviously it will probably not even compile but just imagine it will) we can imagine the output not to be in perfect ascending order or perfect descending order. If we sort 10 sets of 10 random numbers the output may vary from set to set. For example, the first set of 10 random numbers might be sorted in perfect ascending order:

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

Then the second set may be sorted so that 8 of the numbers are sorted in ascending order while the last two numbers are sorted in descending order such as:

2, 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

And the third set got sorted as:

3, 2, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.

And so on until the last set being sorted in perfect descending order:

10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.

So what is the point of this example? The point is that when two messages are delivered or two tasks are performed and if they are somehow combined then the resulting message or outcome might be expected to vary over the range between the two original messages or tasks. Therefore, it can be expected that it will act like either in a cyclical manner, first acting like one and then acting like the other or something in between. The sepcon is made out of a combination of two opposing electric forces - a positive electric force message unit and a negative electric force message unit. Therefore, the sepcon force can be expected to act first like a positive electric force and be repulsive against the proton and then act like a negative electric force and be attractive to it.

The sepcon matter units themselves do not perform the task of delivering messages to the protons and electrons. After the sepcon disk is formed, each sepcon matter unit emits a sepcon force message unit which carries the message to the proton and electron. But the sepcon matter units dont have the essential ability or programming to produce message units by themselves. Only when a positive or negative electric force message unit hits it, can the sepcon matter unit then transform the electric force message unit giving it a different kind of message to carry and then project it outward. The altered message carried by sepcon force message units as they move out from the proton side of the sepcon disk will alternately repulse the proton and then attract it while on the other side of the sepcon disk the sepcon force message units will alternately repulse the electron and then attract it.

Imagine an X-axis. Place the electron at X=0 and the proton at X=2. Draw a circle with its center at the electron or at X=0 and radius
r1=2^0.5 (square root of 2); let the point X=2^0.5 be designated as P1. Draw another circle with its center at X=2 and radius r=2^0.5. The overlapping area is the sepcon disk. Of course, instead of two circles it should really be two spheres where the intersection of the two spheres form a 3-dimensional disk with its center on the line joining the electron and proton. Designate the sphere with its center at the electron or X=0 and r=2^0.5 as S1.

Now draw another circle or imagine another sphere with its center at the electron and radius r2=2=(2^0.5)^2. Designate this sphere as S2. The hemispherical region on the proton side between these two spheres, S1 and S2, is the repulsive region and designate it as R1 or Repulsive region 1. The sepcon message units in this region of space, R1, will deliver the message to move the proton away from the sepcon surface. That is, the sepcon force message unit will repulse the proton anywhere inside the region of space R1.
Now draw another circle or imagine another sphere with its center at the electron or X=0 and radius
r3=2.8284=(2^0.5)^3. Designate this sphere as S3. Inside the hemispherical region on the proton side between the spheres S2 and S3, call it A1 or Attractive region 1, the sepcon force will be attractive. That is, the proton inside region A1 will be attracted toward the sepcon.
Let the strength of the force be 1 at r1=2^0.5. Therefore, the strength of the force at r2=2 is 0.5; and the strength of the force at r3=2.8284 is 0.25.
Imagine the sepcon force message unit to be an earth with a line running from the south pole through the north pole and extended out infinitely. The earth moves northward along this line (but does not spin around this line). Imagine the proton as a meteor that hits the earth, passes through the center and out the other side. As the meteor passes through the center of the earth a force is applied to it in some direction. The strength and direction of the force is determined by the number of times the sepcon force has split (or indirectly by the distance it has traveled from the surface of the sepcon disk).
The surface of the sepcon disk on the proton side is located at X=2^0.5. Each matter unit of the sepcon disk modifies a unit of positive electric force that impacts it by changing the message it carries and projects it outward. The effect is a hemisphere of sepcon message units expanding away from the surface of the sepcon disk. As the hemisphere expands the surface area increases while the size of each unit remains the same, so gaps appear between the message units. Each empty space unit is surrounded by many occupied message units. All the surrounding message units will contribute equally to creating a new message unit to fill the empty space unit. And the new message unit has the same strength of force as all the other message units. Each old message unit contributing to the creation of a new message unit has its strength reduced by a proportionate amount each time. If the strength of the new message unit is S then each of the N old message unit has its strength reduced by S/N.
At the beginning the force is directed up through the north pole or latitude 90 degrees north. Each time a sepcon message unit is split by a small amount it will direct its force slightly to a lower latitude. So that the force is successively directed toward latitude 89 degrees north, 88 degrees north, etc. until it reaches 0 degree north or the equator just as the strength of the force is reduced by exactly half. At this time the sepcon message unit would be at r2=2 and at the outer edge of sphere S2 or at the outer edge of the repulsive region R1.
The force is also directed in the Longitude 90 degrees east direction with the longitude of the point of impact being 0 degree. After reaching r2=2, the sepcon message unit would be in the A1 region where the force becomes attractive as it is directed in the downward or inward or southward direction. The force will begin by being directed straight down in the direction of the south pole. Then it is successively directed toward Latitude 89 degrees south and Longitude 90 degrees east, Latitude 88 degrees south and Longitude 90 degrees east, etc. until it reaches Latitude 0 degree or equator and Longitude 90 degrees east. Then the sepcon unit would be at the beginning of the next repulsive region, R2, where the force would start by being directed straight up through the north pole again and then systematically down toward the equator. And the cycle repeats as the sepcon message unit moves further outward away from the surface of the sepcon passing successively through repulsive region followed by attractive region followed by repulsive region, etc.  17. LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.

Part 4.3 What are forces. Sepcon forces. (Continued)

If the strength of the force is 1 at the surface of the sepcon where the surface of the sepcon is located at r=2^0.5 (square root of 2), then the total force integrated over the distance from r=2^0.5 to r=2 or the repulsive region R1 is 0.4142. But the sum of the forces in the outward direction (integrating with the sine of the force) equals 0.288. That is, the total repulsive force of the R1 region is 0.288. Similarly the total attractive force of the A1 region is 0.20365. Also the total repulsive force from radius=1.50482 to radius=2 is also 0.20365.

Assuming the proton is at x=2 at the moment when the sepcon is formed, it would be at the outer edge of R1. As the proton moves inward it would experience a repulsive force against it in the direction of Latitude 0 degree north/Longitude 90 degree east, then Latitude 1 degree north/Longitude 90 degree east, etc. If the proton is stopped in its inward direction before reaching X=1.50482 (or hemisphere of radius r=1.50482) then the repulsive force generated as it is pushed outward will not be more than the total attractive force of the A1 region. This means that the proton will be stopped before it reaches the outer edge of the A1 region at X=2.8284 (2^0.5^3) (or hemisphere of radius r=2.8284) and be pushed back in toward the surface of the sepcon again. In this way the proton will oscillate between the regions R1 and A1 forever.
As the proton is oscillating between R1 and A1 on one side of the sepcon, the electron is oscillating on the other side of the sepcon in an analogous manner. And so the sepcon is observed to be an effective separator and connector that keeps the proton and electron separated on either side of the sepcon while preventing them from flying apart.
But there is a lateral component to the forces applied to the proton matter units due to the force being applied to the Longitude 90 degrees east. These lateral forces make the proton move in a clockwise direction looking down from the north pole. As the proton spins sideways on one side and the electron spins sideways on the other side it will make the sepcon spin, wobble and roll as it tries to maintain its position at the center of the line joining the proton and the electron. Therefore, the situation becomes very dynamic and unstable. Ultimately, the proton and electron will become so unmanageable that they fly apart and the neutron is disintegrated. The mean lifetime of the neutron has been observed to be some 881 seconds.
After the proton and electron flew apart, the sepcon disk can no longer retain its shape and size because its temporary matter units depend on a constant stream of various types of message units from the proton and electron to provide the essential data to form and maintain a coordinated structure. Nevertheless, the temporary matter units of the sepcon disk must have incorporated some essential elements from the proton and electron message units into its own temporary matter units. So after some adjustments after the proton and electron had departed the sepcon disk becomes a neutrino which is found at the dissolution of the neutron into proton and electron.
While I talk about forces being applied, I don’t mean that sepcon force message units actually bumped proton or electron matter units like billiard balls colliding together and transferring energy to each other as physicists believe. The sepcon message units and proton or electron matter units occupy the same space units and messages or data are transmitted from the sepcon message units to the proton or electron matter units telling them which way to move and by how much. There is no transfer of energy but only data. The energy is ultimately provided by the space units when it moves various kinds of units, message units and matter units, from one space unit to another adjoining space units. The message units and matter units are only unique states of the space units. Perhaps there really isn’t anything called energy in the universe because it may not take any energy to transmit a unique state of a space unit to some adjoining space unit or units. At least not in the sense physicists mean such as heat, light, momentum, etc.
Physicists say atomic nuclei are composed of protons and neutrons. I think there are no neutrons inside the nucleus at normal times. Normally there are only protons and electrons kept together in a stable system by sepcons. Some might reasonably ask how can the sepcons keep the protons and electrons in the nuclei from flying apart when they obviously cannot keep protons and electrons connected in neutrons. This is because in the neutron there is only one sepcon for each proton and electron while in the nucleus there are 2 or more sepcons acting on each proton and electron thus cancelling out the lateral forces. Without the destabilizing lateral forces the protons and electron will oscillate up and down between the repulsive and attractive regions. I will explain further in the next part how more than one sepcon will cancel out the lateral forces.  18. LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.

Part 4.4 What are forces. Sepcon forces in nucleus.

Physicists say nuclei are made of protons and neutrons. I say they are made of protons, electrons and sepcons.
Consider a square sheet of paper with a proton at each of its corners. Imagine a sharp pencil is poked through the center of the paper and an electron is attached to each end. A sepcons will form between each proton and each electron for a total of 8 sepcons. Each proton will have two sepcons and two protons (in adjacent corners) locking it into a straight line oscillation while each electron will have 4 sepcons locking it into a straight line oscillation.
I will discuss what happens to one of the four protons. The other three protons are symmetrical. Imagine a Cartesian plane. Place an electron at X=2^0.5 (square root of 2 or 1.4142) and Y=0. Place another electron at X=-2^0.5 and Y=0. Place a proton at X=0 and Y=2^0.5.

Draw a circle with radius 1.4142 or square root of 2 with center at (1.4142, 0). Draw another circle with radius 1.4142 with center at (0, 1.4142). Imagine the two circles to be two spheres. The intersection of these two spheres forms the sepcon disc for the right side electron. Call this right side sepcon. Now draw another circle with radius 2 and centered a (1.4142, 0) and imagine it to be a sphere. The space between this sphere and the right side sepcon is the repulsive region of the right side sepcon. Call this repulsive region R1(r). Draw another circle with radius 2.8284 and centered at (1.4142, 0). Imagine the circle to be a sphere. The space between the sphere with radius 2 and centered at (1.4142, 0) and the sphere with radius 2.8242 and centered at (1.4142, 0) is the attractive region of right side sepcon, A1(r).
Draw a circle with radius 1.4142 or square root of 2 with center at (-1.4142, 0). Draw another circle with radius 1.4142 with center at (0, 1.4142). Imagine the two circles to be two spheres. The intersection of these two spheres forms the sepcon disc for the left side electron. Call this left side sepcon. Now draw another circle with radius 2 and centered a (-1.4142, 0) and imagine it to be a sphere. The space between this sphere and the right side sepcon is the repulsive region of the left side sepcon. Call this repulsive region R1(l). Draw another circle with radius 2.8284 and centered at (-1.4142, 0). Imagine the circle to be a sphere. The space between the sphere with radius 2 and centered at (-1.4142, 0) and the sphere with radius 2.8242 and centered at (-1.4142, 0) is the attractive region of the left side sepcon, A1(l). alphaparticle.jpg

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g2...rticle2jpg.jpg

As mentioned above, the proton is located on the Y-axis at (0, 1.4142). Apply a force in the downward direction. As the proton travels down the Y-axis it is moving through a volume of space overlapped by the repulsive region of the right sepcon and the repulsive region of the left sepcon. The strength of the two forces are equal. The lateral component of the forces cancel each other out while the vertical component of the forces combine to push the proton upward along the Y-axis. The proton will eventually stop and then be pushed upward along the Y-axis. When the proton rises above y=1.4142 it enters a volume of space overlapped by the attractive region of the right sepcon and the attractive region of the left sepcon. Again the strength of the two forces are equal. The lateral components of the forces cancel each other out while the downward components of the forces combine to pull the proton down along the Y-axis. Eventually the proton stops and begins to be pulled downward along the Y-axis.

In the absence of outside forces, the proton would oscillate up and down along the Y-axis forever. But consider what happens when a force is applied to move the proton to the left. Imagine the proton is located at (0, 1.4142) and a force is applied to it to make it move to the left in the negative X direction. It enters a volume of space overlapped by the repulsive region of the left sepcon, R1(l), and the attractive region of the right sepcon, A1(r). The repulsive force of the R1(1) would push the proton upward and to the right in the positive X direction while the A1(r) would pull the proton downward and to the right in the positive X direction. The combined force would pull the proton to the right in the positive X direction and back toward the Y-axis. The same result is obtained if the proton is pushed to the right side of the Y-axis. So the proton ends up centered on the Y-axis and oscillate up and down along the Y-axis.

If the proton is located above (0, 1.4142) and pushed to the left in the negative X direction as it is moving downward then it would enter a volume of space overlapped by the attractive region of the left sepcon, A1(l), and the attractive region of the right sepcon, A1(r). The proton would move downward until it reaches the volume of space overlapped by the repulsive region of the left sepcon, R1(l), and the attractive region of the right sepcon, A1(r). The result is as described above with the proton pushed and pulled back toward to the Y-axis. So any deviation from the Y-axis to the left or right will be corrected and the proton ends up back along the Y-axis.

Now, let me remind you that there are two protons located at the two adjacent corners of the square paper as described above. These are located respectively at (0, 0, 1.4142) and (0, 0, -1.4142). To distinguish among the three protons, let’s call the proton along the Y-axis proton 1 and the proton located at (0, 0, 1.4142) proton 2; and the third proton located at (0, 0, -1.4142) proton 3.

Proton 2 and 3 would exert a repulsive force on proton 1 along their respective line of sight with proton 1. When proton 1 is moving along the Y-axis the two repulsive forces are equal and cancel each other out in the lateral direction. This means that if proton 1 moves toward proton 2, then the repulsive force of proton 2 becomes greater than the repulsive force of proton 3. The result is proton 1 will be pushed back toward the Y-axis and oscillate up and down along the Y-axis.

Each of the two electrons has associated with it 4 sepcons that keep it centered on the X-axis and oscillating along the X-axis for the same reason that the two sepcons and the two adjacent protons associated with each of the 4 protons keep their associated proton centered along the Y-axis or Z-axis respectively.

From the above explanation, it is clear that the system will correct and stabilize itself so that the proton will oscillate up and down along the Y-axis while the electrons will oscillate along the X-axis forever. Furthermore, other protons will be repulsed by the two positive electric charges at greater distances and cannot approach close enough to upset the system. Electrons will be stopped at a certain specified distance by forming sepcons with the remaining two positive charges. More about this later. Suffice it to say here that electrons too cannot approach close enough to upset the system unless they are moving very fast. More about this later also.

If the above combination of 4 protons:8 sepcons:2 electrons breaks off from a larger nucleus it is called an alpha particle by the physicists who describe it as a combination of 2 protons and 2 neutrons. It is also called a helium nucleus.

If a combination of 1 proton:1 sepcon:1 electron breaks off from the above description of a 4 proton:8 sepcons:2 electron system or helium nucleus, then it is already a neutron. As explained before in a prior part, a neutron tends to spin uncontrollably and ultimately breaks apart.

If a 4 protons:8 sepcons:2 electrons system or helium nucleus breaks up into two equal parts then each part will consist of 2 protons:2 sepcons:1 electron. Such a combination is called a deuterium nucleus by the physicists who describe it as a proton and a neutron.

Since each proton of a deuterium has only one sepcon associated with it, it tends to spin like the proton in a neutron. But unlike the neutron, when the two deuterium protons spin above the horizon of the sepcons and come into sight of each other, they exert a force against each other along the line of sight. Such a force will slow the protons down and push them back away from each other. Ultimately, the protons will stay on the opposite side of the electron and spin within a narrow angle around a straight line that passes through the electron. So, a deuterium nucleus is more stable than a neutron but less stable than a helium nucleus. (To be continue due to too large text.)  19. (Continued from interrupted post.)

LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.

Part 4.4 What are forces. Sepcon forces in nucleus.

It is also much easier to fuse two deuterium nuclei than to fuse two helium nuclei. Two deuterium nuclei might be fused according to the following scenario.

Imagine a Cartesian plane. Locate an electron, call it the left electron, at (x=-1.4142, y=0). Locate a proton, call it proton 1, at (x=-1.4142, y=2). Locate another proton, call it proton 2, at (x=-1.4142, y=-2). Imagine a sepcon between each of the two protons and the electron respectively. Let another electron, call it the right electron, be located on the X-axis beyond x=1.4142 with two protons associated by two respective sepcons. Call these protons proton 3 and proton 4. Let the right electron approach from the positive X direction along the x-axis with proton 3 and proton 4 in tow. When the right electron approaches x=1.4142 it will come under the attractive forces from proton 1 and proton 2. In response, the right electron will begin to send out attractive forces to the protons 1 and 2 which will move toward the Y-axis. When proton 1 reaches (x=0, y=1.4142) and proton 2 reaches (x=0, y=-1.4142) and the right electron reaches (x=1.4142, y=0), a sepcon will come into being between the right electron and proton 1 while another sepcon will come into being between the right electron and proton 2. Then proton 3 and proton 4 will swing around along the plane parallel to the X-axis and Z-axis and y=0, being constrained by the repulsive forces of proton 1 and proton 2. When proton 3 reaches the location (0, 0, 1.4142) a sepcon will come into being between it and the left electron. Similarly when proton 4 reaches the location (0, 0, -1.4142) a sepcon will come into being between it and the left electron. At this time a stable system of 4 protons:8 sepcons:2 electrons or helium nucleus is formed by the fusion of the two 2 protons:2 sepcons:1 electron systems or deuterium nuclei.

Again, I remind you that the forces are in the form of messenger units projected from and as a subset of the sepcon matter units and carrying data from the sepcon matter units to the protons and electrons to allow them to update their stored data with respect to their direction of travel and how many steps to take during each mobile period as explained in previous parts.  20. Originally Posted by AlexG Would it be overstating the case to say that this thread is total nonsense?
Still, at least it keeps him off the streets and out of trouble.  21. LiTE: Liangs Theory of Everything.
Part 4.5 What are forces? Sepcon forces and chemical bonds.

With respect to the formation of sepcons, electrons always contribute 100% while protons can contribute fractionally. What does this mean? Let me illustrate by some examples. Consider the neutron which consists of 1 proton, 1 electron and 1 sepcon. Both the proton and electron contribute 100% of their respective charge and the sepcon is a 100% or 1.0 or full sepcon. Since both the proton and electron have contributed 100% of their respective charge there is no more electric charge left. Therefore, a neutron emits no charge.

A hydrogen nucleus consists of a single proton. Therefore, a hydrogen nucleus emits a full positive charge.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/hydrogennucleus11.jpg

A deuterium nucleus consists of 2 protons, 1 electron and 2 sepcons. The electron contributes 100% of its charge while each of the 2 protons contribute 50% or half of its charge. And each of the sepcon is a 50% or half or 0.5 or 1/2 sepcon. Since each proton contributes only half of its charge, it has half charge left. Therefore, 2 times half charge equals to a full charge. Therefore, a deuterium nucleus emits a full positive charge but no negative charge.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/deuteriumnucleus13.jpg

A helium 3 nucleus consists of 3 protons, 1 electron and 3 sepcons. The electron contributes 100% while each of the 3 protons contributes 1/3 of its charge. And each of the sepcon is a 1/3 sepcon. Since each proton contributes only 1/3 of its charge, it has 2/3 charge left. Therefore, 3 times 2/3 charge equals 2 full positive charges. Therefore, a helium 3 nucleus emits 2 full positive charges but no negative charge.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/helium-3nucleus12.jpg

A tritium nucleus consists of 3 protons, 2 electrons, and 6 sepcons. Each electron forms 3 sepcons with the 3 protons. Each electrons contributes 100% of its charge or 1/3 of its charge with each proton. Each proton contributes only 2/3 of its charge. 1/3 charge with one electron and 1/3 charge with the other electron. Therefore, each of the 6 sepcons is a 1/3 charge sepcon. Since each proton only contributes 2/3 of its charge, the total positive charge remaining in the nucleus is 3 times 1/3 equals 1. Therefore, a tritium nucleus emits 1 full positive charge and no negative charge.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/tritiumnucleus11.jpg

A helium-4 nucleus consists of 4 protons, 2 electrons, and 8 sepcons. Each electron forms 4 sepcons with the 4 protons. Each electron contributes 100% of its charge or 1/4 of its charge with each proton. Each proton contributes only 1/2 of its charge. 1/4 charge with one electron and 1/4 charge with the other electron. Therefore, each of the 8 sepcons is a 1/4 charge sepcon. Since each proton only contributes 1/2 of its charge, the total charge remaining in the nucleus is 4 times 1/2 equals 2. Therefore, a helium-4 nucleus emits 2 full positive charges and no negative charge.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/5helium4nucleus12.jpg

For a carbon-6 nucleus think of a hexagonal box with 12 corners. Place a proton at each of the 12 corners and place an electron at the center of each of the 6 lateral sides. Each electron will form a quarter charge sepcon with each of the 4 protons at each corner of the side. Each proton will form a quarter sepcon with each of the 2 electrons on the adjacent sides. Therefore, all the negative charges of the electrons are used up while each proton has a half charge left. Therefore, the 12 protons have a total of 6 full positive charges left to emanate from the nucleus.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/11carbonnucleus13.jpg

From the premise that electrons contribute 100% of their charges, it can be concluded that no negative electric charge will emanate from a nucleus. It can also be concluded that the total positive charges emanating from a nucleus will always be integral. This is because the number of positive charges must match the number of negative charges in forming the sepcons. Since an integral number of negative charges are used it means the same integral number of positive charges must have been used and the remaining number of positive charges must therefore be integral.

The positive charges emanating from a nucleus will form sepcons with electrons outside the nucleus in the same way sepcons are formed inside the nucleus. The only difference is the greater distances between the electron, the proton and the sepcon.

For instance, a hydrogen nucleus consisting of a single proton will emit a full positive charge to form a full sepcon with an extra-nuclear electron outside of the nucleus to form a hydrogen atom.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/6hydrogenatom11.jpg

A deuterium nucleus with 2 protons each emitting a half positive charge will form 2 half sepcons with a single extra-nuclear electron outside of the nucleus to form a deuterium atom.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/7deuteriumatom11.jpg

A helium-3 nucleus with 3 protons each emanating a two third positive charge will form 6 one third sepcons with 2 electrons outside its nucleus to form a helium atom. One extra-nuclear electron will form 3 one third sepcons with 3 one third positive charges on one side of the nucleus and the second extra-nuclear electron will form 3 more one third sepcons with 3 one third positive charges on the other side of the nucleus to form a helium-3 atom.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/8helium-3atom14.jpg

A tritium nucleus has 3 protons each emanating 1/3 positive charge. One extra-nuclear electron will form 3 one third charge sepcons with the 3 one third positive charges to form a tritium atom.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/9tritiumatom12.jpg

A helium-4 nucleus has 4 protons each emanating half positive charges. One extra-nuclear electron will form 2 half charge sepcons with 2 half positive charges emitted by two intra-nuclear protons on one side of the nucleus and the other extra-nuclear electron will form 2 half charge sepcons with the other 2 half positive charges emitted by the other two intra-nuclear protons on the other side of the nucleus. A helium-4 atom is therefore composed of a helium-4 nucleus and 2 extra-nuclear electrons and 4 half charge sepcons.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/10helium-4atom.jpg

Outside of the carbon nucleus there are 6 electrons. One way for the 6 extra-nuclear electrons to link up with the 12 intra-nuclear protons to form a carbon atom is given in the following graph. 12 intra-nuclear protons emit 6 full positive charges to link with 6 extra-nuclear electrons. 4 extra-nuclear electrons are linked to 8 intra-nuclear protons via 16 quarter charge sepcons. 2 extra-nuclear electrons are linked to 4 intra-nuclear protons by 4 half charge sepcons. Only 3 extra-nuclear electrons are shown in the graph. The other 3 are symmetrical.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory%20of%20everything/12carbonatom123.jpg

(To be continued.)  22. (Continued from prior post.)

LiTE: Liangs Theory of Everything.
Part 4.5 What are forces? Sepcon forces and chemical bonds.

Atom to atom bonding.
Hydrogen diatomic bond.

In the graph below, the proton of the top hydrogen nucleus splits its positive charge into 2 half positive charges. One of the half positive charges combines with a half negative charge from its own electron to form a half charge sepcon. The other half positive charge combines with a half negative charge from the electron of the bottom hydrogen nucleus. The proton of the bottom nucleus acts symmetrically resulting in a hydrogen molecule consisting of 2 intra-nuclear protons, 2 extra-nuclear electrons and 4 extra-nuclear half charge sepcons.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory of everything/13hydrogendiatomicmolecule12.jpg

Deuterium diatomic molecule.
A deuterium diatomic molecule is made up of two deuterium atoms. In a deuterium nucleus there are two protons and an electron which form two half sepcons. This leaves a half positive charge in each of the protons which are emitted beyond the nucleus. One of the half positive charge reacts with the extra-nuclear electron belonging to the deuterium to form a half charge sepcon. The other half positive charge reacts with the extra-nuclear electron belonging to another deuterium atom to form another half sepcon. The second deuterium atom reacts the same way resulting in a deuterium diatomic molecule which is composed of two deuterium nuclei, two extra-nuclear electrons and 4 extra-nuclear half charge sepcons.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory of everything/14deuteriumdiatomic14.jpg

Tritium diatomic molecule.
A tritium diatomic molecule is made up of two tritium atoms. In a tritium nucleus there are 3 protons and 2 electrons which react to form six 1/3 charge intra-nuclear sepcons. Therefore, each of the 3 protons has a 1/3 positive charge left to emit out of the nucleus. Two of the 1/3 positive charges are emitted out of one side of the nucleus to react with the extra-nuclear electron belonging to the tritium atom to form two 1/3 charge extra-nuclear sepcons. The remaining 1/3 positive charge is emitted out of the other side of the nucleus to form a 1/3 charge extra-nuclear sepcon with the extra-nuclear electron belonging to another tritium atom. The positive charges emitted by the protons of the other tritium nucleus act symmetrically to result in a diatomic molecule composed of two tritium nuclei, two extra-nuclear electrons and 6 extra-nuclear 1/3 charge sepcons.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory of everything/15tritiumdiatomicmolecule13.jpg

Methane molecule.
A methane molecule is composed of 1 carbon nucleus, 4 hydrogen nuclei, 10 extra-nuclear electrons (6 belonging to the carbon nucleus and 4 belonging to the hydrogen nuclei), 12 extra-nuclear half charge sepcons and 16 extra-nuclear quarter charge sepcons. Each hydrogen proton emits 2 half positive charges (a total of 8 half positive charges) to react with 8 negative half charges emitted by 8 of the extra-nuclear electrons. 4 of the carbon protons each emits 1 positive half charge to react with 4 negative half charges emitted by 4 of the extra-nuclear electrons. Therefore, the total number of half charge sepcons is 12. 8 of the carbon protons each emits 2 positive quarter charges to react with 6 extra-nuclear electrons to form 16 quarter charge sepcons.

http://i58.photobucket.com/albums/g253/Liang1a/theory of everything/16mathanemolecule19.jpg

The most popular model of atoms is the planetary model. In this model the electrons move rapidly around the nucleus like planets around the sun. But from the beginning many physicists dont think this is the correct model. Many think the electrons are relatively stationary. The concept of sepcons provides the mechanism whereby the electrons can remain stationary and in precisely calculated positions in well defined levels around the nucleus.

Similarly, in the nucleus itself the sepcons arrange the protons and electrons into precisely calculated positions and account for the existence of isotopes such as the 3 isotopes of hydrogen and the 2 isotopes of helium pictured above.

The single force of sepcons also eliminates the need for weak and strong forces. It also provides the basis for light, magnetism and all the subatomic particles such as neutrinos as will be explained in the following sections.

Therefore, the theory of space units, matter units and messenger units and their interaction account for all the observed phenomena and provide a single theory to account for everything.  23. Why hasn't this thread been moved to pseudoscience?  24. It has now.  Bookmarks
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