LiTE: Liang’s Theory of Everything.

Part 1 What is Velocity? What is Time?

It is well known that clocks on GPS satellites run at different rates than clocks on the ground. Such evidence of changed clock rates on faster moving frames of reference or in lower gravitational fields have validated Einstein’s Theory of Relativity. But Einstein’s theory also says that space can be warped and time traveled - at least theoretically. I don’t think it is possible to warp space or travel through time. Also, Einstein’s theories don’t explain why things move at the microscopic level or explain other phenomena such as momentum, energy, matter, space, etc. But how can I explain the clear evidence of time dilation and other phenomena predicted by Einstein’s Theory of Relativity? After thinking about these problems for a long time I think I might have found a simple solution to explain all the observed natural phenomena as well as to explain what space, matter, energy, etc. are as well as all the observations made by the various colliders. Indeed, I think I have found a way to tie everything together into a single theory of everything.

I begin the presentation of this theory with the following example to explain what is velocity and what is time.

Imagine a wide plane. In the center of this plane imagine 360 soldiers arranged in a circle. They are all sleeping. At a signal they all wake up and facing east begin marching for exactly 100 steps. Then they all stop at the same time and fall asleep immediately. They sleep for a period of 1,000 units of time. Each unit of time I call a tick. Then the soldiers wake up again, and again march for exactly 100 steps. The time taken to march 1 step is exactly 1 tick. The time measured by the tick is called the

. The soldiers continue to repeat this cycle of sleeping, waking up and marching.universal time

Velocity can be defined as the distance traveled per unit of time. If V represents velocity; N represents total distance traveled; and T represents the total time elapsed, then:

V = N / T.

The velocity of the soldiers can be calculated as:

V = number of steps / (time sleeping + time marching)

V = 100 / (1,000 + 100)

V = 0.0909 steps per tick

Let D represent the time sleeping or

, thendormancy

V = N / (D + N)

It is immediately clear that as N increases V approaches 1 as the limit. Later I will show that 1 step per tick is the speed of light and why nothing can exceed the speed of light.

Now, let’s embed a timekeeper with the group of soldiers who sleeps and marches with them. He has in his hand a counter which advances the count by 1 each time he clicks it. Now let’s set the soldiers marching again with a difference. Each time they stop they would all fire off their guns before falling asleep. And whenever the timekeeper hears the gunfire he would click his counter exactly once. Let’s call the counter the

and the unit ofnominal clockit keeps the click.Let’s say the soldiers now spend 110,000 ticks of universal time marching and sleeping. At the end of the 110,000 ticks of universal time the nominal clock would have registered 100 clicks of nominal time. And the velocity based on the nominal clock is:nominal time

V(nominal) = 10,000 steps / 100 clicks

V(nominal) = 100 steps / click

Generally speaking, if K represents the number of cycles then,

V = KN / K(D + N)

K’s cancel out and (D + N) equal 1 click. Therefore,

V(nominal) = N

This means according to the nominal clock the velocity can increase indefinitely.

Now, let’s add another group of soldiers which is identical to the first group except it would march for 200 steps in each marching period. We call the group that march for 100 steps the Group 1 and the second group the Group 2. They are placed at the starting point and at the start of the universal clock they all fall asleep for 1,000 ticks of universal time and then waking began marching at their respective pattern. After 120,000 ticks of universal time they stop. At this time the nominal clock of Group 2 would register 100 clicks of nominal time while Group 1 nominal clock registers 109 clicks. The nominal time for Group 2 has slowed down. That is, we can say that the nominal time for Group 2 has dilated due to increased velocity.

Now, let’s add a third group, Group 3, which is identical to the first two groups except this group will not sleep but keeps marching without ever stopping. Let’s put Group 1 and Group 3 at the starting point and start the universal clock ticking. Group 1 immediately falls asleep while Group 3 immediately start marching. After 110,000 ticks of the universal clock we stop them. At this time the nominal clock of Group 1 shows 100 clicks of time. Group 1 has advanced 10,000 steps while Group 3 has advanced 110,000 steps. Group 3 is 100,000 steps ahead of Group 1. If we convince Group 1 that it has not moved then it would appear to it that Group 3 has moved 100,000 steps in 100 clicks of time or 1,000 steps per click. That is, the velocity of Group 3 appears to Group 1 to be 1,000 steps per click of its (Group 1’s) nominal clock.

Next, let’s put Group 2 and Group 3 at the starting point and repeat the operation except this time we let 120,000 ticks of the universal time expire before we stop them. The nominal clock of Group 2 would show 100 clicks and it would have advanced 20,000 steps. And if we convince Group 2 that it did not move then it would appear to it that Group 3 has advanced 100,000 steps in 100 clicks of time and that the velocity of Group 3 is 1,000 steps per click of its (Group 2’s) nominal time.

From this we can see that the velocity of Group 3 remains the same at 1,000 steps per click of the respective nominal clock of Group 1 and Group 2. By the same token the velocity of light remains constant when viewed from whatever frames of reference. Of course, if Group 3 march in a direction other than that parallel to the other two groups the result will not be the same. But this difficulty can be overcome as I will explain later so that the velocity of light will always appear be the same no matter which direction it travels.

Summing up the above we can make the following conclusions. There are 2 manifestations of time. The universal time is unchanging and probably cannot be directly measured. The nominal time is measured by artificial devices whose operations are altered by velocity. One way to look at the nominal time is to think of it as measuring the metabolism of the particle. Since the metabolism of the particle is affected by velocity, becoming slower with increasing velocity, the time measured also slows down with increasing velocity. One example is to think of measuring time with heartbeat. If the heartbeat slows down with increased exertion then the person making the greater exertion would measure slower time.

Velocity also can be measured in 2 ways. The first is the real velocity timed with the universal clock. The maximum velocity is 1 step per tick. But since we cannot measure the universal time we cannot directly compute the real velocity. The second way to define velocity is by using the nominal clock. Since the nominal clock can slow down with increasing velocity, the nominal velocity is subjective and can be infinite.

At this point the readers will doubtless have many questions and objections. How do I know there is a dormancy period? How do I know each step is exactly the same distance and takes exactly the same amount of universal time? I will elaborate and explain these and other questions in subsequent parts. In the next part I will answer the question, “What is space? What is matter?”