ORIGIN OF WATER ON EARTH
BY SUHAIL JALBOUT
The planet Earth is the only planet in our solar system with huge amounts of surface water. It covers 70.8% of its surface. The estimated volume of all the existing water on Earth is about 1.33 billion cubic km. This is equivalent of having a water-sphere with a diameter of 1,366 km; the Moon has a diameter of 3,476 km, Pluto has a diameter of 2,360 km, and Chiron has a diameter of 1,172 km.
There are many theories that explain the origin of water on the Earth. It is believed that the bombardment of comets, “wet” asteroids, and ice particles formed the major part of water on Earth. However, the main contributors are comets since 40% of their mass is water-ice. The average diameters of comets range from 1.0 km to 20 km. Let us assume that the comets that bombarded Earth are spherical in shape and of the same size with an average diameter of 10 km. Since 40% of their mass is water-ice, the amount of water that each comet will have is 209 billion tons. This means that the number of comets that should bombard Earth to produce the major part of Earth’s water is 6.36 million. If this quantity represents 0.1% of the total quantity of the comets that passed near Earth, then the total number of comets that should have existed is 6.36 billion comets. This is a huge unconceivable amount of comets that passed near Earth or fell on it before the oceans were formed. No doubt comets, “wet” asteroids, ice particles, volcanic eruptions, and water vapor in the original Earth’s atmosphere contributed to the formation of water on Earth. However, it does not sound feasible that they have produced alone the 1.33x10^18 tons of water on the planet. There must be another source that contributed to the major volume of water on Earth.
I tend to believe that the solar system was formed in accordance to the “Nebular-Ripple Hypothesis”. Rings were formed, in a geometric progression, around the equator of the Sun due to its push-pull forces. These rings were transformed into planets and each planet had its own rings. The rings of the planet that were outside the Roche limit formed moons. However, those within the Roche limit either remained to our present day or disappeared.
The outside planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune still have their rings. The rings of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars vanished. The composition of the rings of Saturn and Uranus are mainly water-ice. If we assume that the original rings of the inner planets contained also water-ice, then it is possible to predict their disappearance. Those of Mercury and Venus were blown away in space due to solar heat and solar wind. The rings of Earth and Mars must have collapsed flooding both planets with water.
The ring around Earth was experiencing two equal forces in opposite directions. The Earth was pulling the ring inwards while the Moon was pulling the ring outwards. It is quite possible that traces of the ring may have lasted to date if it was not for our Moon. The Moon is receding from Earth, at the present time, at a rate of 3.8 cm per year. It is believed that it was receding at a rate of 10 km per year when the Earth and Moon were created 4.6 billion years ago. Let us assume that the Moon was receding at an average rate of 5 cm per year during its life time. This means the Moon receded to date by 230,000 km. The Moon’s closest perigee, at the present time, is 365,000 km. Thus, the distance of the Moon from Earth was 135,000 km at the time of their creation.
The theoretical calculated Roche limit is 2.5 times the radius of Earth. This means that the ring that was formed at the equator of Earth should have been located at a distance less than 16,000 km from the center of Earth. Let us assume that its average distance was 14,000 km.
The oceans on Earth were formed about 1 billion years from the time of its creation. This means that the Moon had recessed by 50,000 km during this period.
Using the above estimated numbers in very simplified mathematical equations gives the following result:
The outward pull of the Moon on the ring, at the time when the oceans were formed, was 50% less than its outward pull when it was created. This reduction in the outward pull changed the ring’s distance from Earth and its angular momentum. As a result, the ring collapsed towards Earth. When the ring entered the Earth’s atmosphere, most of its water-ice melted due to friction. Water in huge amounts must have flooded a large belt around the Earth’s equator. From the equator water spread to the north and south poles flooding the Earth and creating oceans. We can thus conclude that the Earth received the major part of its water from the ring that was in orbit during a short period of time.
What about Mars? According to NASA, Mars had oceans covering 30% of its surface. For some unknown reason, Mars lost its water.
Most probably water was formed on Mars in the same way as water was formed on Earth. However, I believe Mars experienced a horrible catastrophe few billion years ago. The moons of Mars are not spherical. They are potato shaped. All moons that were formed at the time when the solar system was created are spherical in shape. Since the moons of Mars are not, this implies that a cataclysm happened to Mars and to the two moons. The culprit that caused the cataclysm is the explosion of Bode’s planet that existed between Mars and Jupiter at the time when the solar system was created, please refer to my theory “Reviving Bode’s Law”. Huge asteroids from the smashed planet bombarded Mars and its two moons. The bombardment deformed the two moons, or possibly split the original one moon of Mars into two pieces, and evaporated all of Mars surface water.
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