We just stated Vectors in Geometry, I can figure them out and work with them, but I don't quite understand what they actually are.

I know an objects velocity is the speed and direction it is going. How does does the word vector relate to velocity, if at all?

If the wind is blowing in the same direction as a car, is that a positive vector? If the wind is blowing against the car, would that be a negative vector? What kind of vector would it be if the wind was blowing to the left or right sides of the car?

Why can you determine the change in direction/magnitude from a right triangle?