1. I found this thread, it is quite fascinating to watch. There is a lot of verbiage and preciously little math, and when people make an attempt at math, it is wrong. Only one contributor had it right (but he does not elaborate) and it is not the moderator who talks the loudest. Who would that be?
Just in case you think I do not have an opinion, I do: the time to collision with the large mass M is dependent on the masses of the test probes of mass and , so Galilei was technically wrong IF one drops the test probes one at a time and IF the testprobes have the same radius. The ratio of the times to collision is:

(if the testprobes have different radii, the above gets a lot more complicated).
So, if M is not too much larger than and , the fact that Galilei was dead wrong can be easily tested. (think a torsion balance).

2.

3. So, after a lot of back and forth, they decided to ask the professional physicists, like Lawrence Krauss. Interestingly enough, after 8 pages of back and fort, none has managed to put up a rigorous, mathematical argument.
So, what did Galilei say, exactly?

"But I, Simplicia, who have made the test, can assure you that a cannon ball weighing one or two hundred pounds, or even more, will not reach the ground by as much as a span ahead of a musket ball weighing only half a pound, provided both are dropped from a height of 200 cubits.”

4. After 247 posts, on post 248, one user finally posts"a" solution. This is what happens when people substitute handwaving for physics. But it is still wrong, even after the correction from post 275.

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