Talking about the dark energy in the universe, one may think of antigravitation.

In the antigravitational experiment, time shown on a stopwatch sometimes pauses.

1 Steps of the experiment

(1) Prepare three identical quartz stopwatches (chronograph capabilities: dive watch, 1/100 second precision to 24 hours). Let them be Stopwatch A, Stopwatch B and Stopwatch C respectively.

(2) Start Stopwatch A and Stopwatch B simultaneously. In the experiment stated in Section 1.2 of the Antigravitation Engine Site (hereafter called the Site), lay Stopwatch B in front of the rotation part of the antigravitation engine, at the head of the boat (without the washbasin). The boat (without the washbasin) is put horizontally on the water in a bathtub.

In order to make the speed of the boat not equal to zero, the water in the bathtub should be fresh and clean, the batteries should be newly charged, and the weather should be clear.

Turn on the motor. Put Stopwatch A on a table in another room.

After 16 hours, turn off the motor. Place Stopwatch A and Stopwatch B side by side. Shoot a video of the readings of the two stopwatches, and take at least 10 photos of them. When the photos are taken, the shutter speed is 1/1000 s.

(3) Start Stopwatch A and Stopwatch C simultaneously. Lay Stopwatch C in front of the rotation part of the antigravitation engine, at the head of the "boat". Put the boat on a stool. Turn on the motor. Since the frictional resistance of the stool surface is large, the antigravitation is zero according to Eq. (2) in Section 1.2 of Chapter 1 of the Site. Put Stopwatch A on a table in another room.

After 16 hours, turn off the motor. Place Stopwatch A and Stopwatch C side by side. Shoot a video of the readings of the two stopwatches, and take at least 10 photos of them. When the photos are taken, the shutter speed is 1/1000 s.

2 The result of the experiment

(1) The video playing in slow motion and playing step by step shows that, compared with the time shown on Stopwatch A and that shown on Stopwatch C, the time shown on Stopwatch B sometimes pauses.

(2) When Stopwatch A is close to Stopwatch B, Stopwatch A will be affected by Stopwatch B and hence the uncertainty in the time shown on Stopwatch A will slightly increase.

3 Theory

3.1 (1) In the antigravitational field, a different antigravitational quantum of action corresponds to a different uncertainty in the spacetime, and hence corresponds to a different spacetime.

In the antigravitational field, when the mass and the velocity of a particle vary due to the uncertainty relation of quantum mechanics and due to the change in the quantum state, the particle has different antigravitational quanta of action (see Eq. (3) below), and hence it is in different spacetimes.

Hence in the antigravitational field, different quantum states often belong to different spacetimes.

Therefore, in the antigravitational field, at some moments Stopwatch B is in a quantum state of another spacetime, and hence the time shown on the stopwatch pauses.

When it has left the antigravitational field, Stopwatch B will keep the above feature for a short time.

3.2 According to mechanics,

Delta E = (1/2) m v v . ( 1 )

According to Equation ( 2 ) of Section 7.10.1 of the Site,

m = M v v / (c c) , ( 2 )

where m is the mass of the gfm (gravitational field matter) ball particle of the rotation part of the antigravitation engine.

According to Equation ( 3 ) of Section 7.10.1 of the Site,

h' = 0.27 G M M v / (c c) , ( 3 )

where h' is the antigravitatioinal quantum of action.

According to Equation ( 2 ) of Section 6.8 of the Site,

(Delta t) (Delta E) ≥ h' / (4 Pi) . ( 4 )

Substitution of Equations ( 1 ), ( 2 ) and ( 3 ) into Equation ( 4 ) yields

Delta t ≥ 0.135 G M / (Pi v v v) ,

(v is not equal to zero), ( 5 )

where Delta t is the uncertainty in the time, G is Newton's gravitational constant, M is the mass of the rotation part of the antigravitation engine, and v is the speed of the boat moving due to the antigravitational field.

In the above experiment, M is 0.00315 kg, v is about 0.00004 m/s , and Delta t is about 0.14 s .

If the load on the boat is not too heavy, the carrying device had better not include the washbasin. Instead, put the foam plastic board directly on the water surface. In this way the antigravitational effect is easier to occur.

This is because in the antigravitational experiment described in Chapter 4, the uncertainty in the time of a water molecule can be as large as

Delta t = 239 days .

(See Section 6.21 in Chapter 6 of the Site). So water is the catalyst for change in spacetime.

For more information (e.g. the video), please see Chapter 7 of the Antigravitation Engine Site (http://xczhx.c59.zgsj.com/indexEnglish.htm).