# Thread: Diode Array Challenge to the Second Law of Thermodynamics

1. I was granted U.S. patent 3,890,161, DIODE ARRAY in 1975 on a chip which absorbs uniform ambient surrounding heat as it transforms thermal energy into a matching yield of electrical power. The chip, in mature form, will consist of billions of nanometer scale diodes in consistent alignment that rectify and aggregate radio frequency thermal noise into D.C. electricity. This thermal energy does not require antennas. The diodes are in parallel first so the diode currents bypass each other. The froward current that a random half of the diodes release intermittantly will overwhelm the low reverse current released by the other half of the diodes. The net forward current of the diodes is aggregated into useful power at low voltage. Balanced groups of diodes in parallel are then connected in series to build higher voltage.

The electrons move uphill into the buss voltage within the source diode so they loose momentum so they become colder. The loss of thermal energy is equal to the gain of electrical energy released from the buss.

The power needed to alter the width of the depletion region at the junction, which determines the conductivity of a diode, is deducted from the thermal noise leaving net rectified power meaning that less power is needed to sort the random power than is supplied by the random thermal power. This means that a varient of Maxwell's demon, Smoluchowski's trapdoor, applied to electrons will work. This is a challenge to the Universiality of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The 2LoT is weak at nanoscale volumes.

The concept was tested in 1993 where more power than ~2 nanowatts, the power a single diode can yield, 1 /2 kTB where 1 / 2 accounts for rectification, k=Boltzmann's constant, T=temperature in Kelvins and B= 1 THz, the upper frequency limit of thermal noise, was measured from a chip consisting of ~5,600 Au dot anodes surrounded by SiO2 on a n GaAs substrate. The chip produced ~50 nanowatts as ~50 millivolts across 50 K ohms under professional test conditions, showing feasibility.

This experiment should be corroborated. I would be pleased to advise at a distance. I should be financially disinterested in the corroborating experiments.

Practical diode arrays require nanofabrication of arrays containing a great number of nanometer scale diodes. A test array can be assembled with carbon nanotubes selected to be semiconducting placed between Au and Al rails.

If this works, future appliances would get all the energy they were designed for from ordinary air or water. This energy would be clean, cheap, widely available, safe, quiet, reliable, and not emit greenhouse gas. Furthermore, air conditioning would release electricity instead of consuming it, which is basically more sensible. Small appliances would work cordlessly anywhere in the world out of the box. Many kinds of electric vehicles would become practical. Diode arrays in computers with minor inputs and outputs would recycle the heat from the operating chips so the system would not release heat or need external power while using lots of high power high speed logic.

I want this to be commercialized without fussy licensing restrictions on the diode array or its applications involving all humanity in synergistic development.

Aloha,
Charles M. Brown
Kilauea, Kauai, Hawaii

2.

3. Welcome to our forum, Have a nice-stay.

There are very few times when Science Forum recieves a post worthy of a nobel prize, this is not one of them. I regret to inform you that your knowledge of eletronics is sadly lacking. In short your post is the biggest pile of crap that has ever been collected in one place. I ask the moderators move this thread to SCI-FI pages.

4. What's wrong with the concept?

I first learned about thermodynamics from independent reading of Issac Asimov ~1964. He wrote vividly of smaller volumes of gases become increasingly nonuniform. I take this to mean, with some honest lateral thinking, that a non rectifying matched impedance electronic entity of any size has kTB units of exchangeable thermal energy. This energy is equilibrium in the sense that it is a resting value that will persist indefinitely and disequilibrium in the sense that it fluctuates as radio frequency white noise continuously.

The Second Law loses its rigor if low energy radio frequency white noise can be rectified in passive though nonlinear diodes.

I think most people agree with the facts thus far though they may be presented in general language. Dr. billco's objections may come further along.

Aloha

5. OK first of all tell me a little more about this series parallel diode array how many diodes in prallel in each row and then how many rows in series. Next what is the Vf of the diodes and what materials are the diodes made of? - you say no antennas required, so over what area is the energy received and how is the radio energy transported to the diodes?
What effect (if any) does ambient temperature have on the array? explain how it is you can achieve 'balanced groups of diodes' when you are suggesting a chip with nanometer sized diodes? What is the field strength of the applied electromagnetic field, its Fo and Bw? If you can answer any or all of these questions I then have a second set, then a third,then a fourth....

This is a serious science forum, if you are attempting to demostrate to people you have swallowed a copy of Huttnell's 'Semiconductor Theory' then rest assured you have succeeded, if you are attempting to show you understand it then you have failed.

It is often said that if enough monkeys sit at PC's and type away, sooner or later something apparently sensible will appear on the screen. You may need to sit there a little while longer.

6. It is probably more practical to fabricate the diode array vertically with the anodes as posts in an approximately equidistant pattern with good packing density but not needing to register with anything,
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! instead of being arranged in rows and columns. The top of the exclamation point represents a short vertical unit diameter single wall carbon nanotube embedded in an insulating matrix abutting a n type InSb substrate ( the underline). The dot of the exclamation point represents the depletion region. The pattern may be 10^11 anode columns where the ~2 nm anodes are separated ~30 nm in staggered rows. Buss planes on the top and bottom sandwich the nanometer scale Schottky anode diodes into consistent alignment parallel. Balancing refers to the loose guide that the parallel elements be of similar size: a well balanced system is the most practical even though there is no harm in adequately designed diode arrays being short circuited or open circuited.

The Johnson noise voltage is lumped at the depletion region: the The Johnson noise current is lumped in the semiconductor. When the electron current moves forward, semiconductor to anode, the depletion region shrinks and more electrons tunnel through. When the electron current moves in reverse ( sometimes called inverse), anode to semiconductor, the depletion region expands and fewer electrons tunnel through. The Vf is an unimportant here; it is a conventional point on n exponential curve. There is a space charge (tubes) or lattice charge (solids) associated with the depletion region but this is already in equilibrium with carrier diffusion.

I quickly bought a deep book on semiconductor physics when the concept was new. I was encouraged to learn from it the critical point that the reverse leakage decreased with decreasing junction area. Junction capacitance also decreases with decreasing junction area. My hypothesis is that rectified Johnson noise, 1 / 2 kTB, can be aggregated with very many very small diodes in consistent alignment parallel.

Aloha

7. I can see if I do not discard conventional semiconductor theory this is going to to carry on for some time with me asking questions and you replying with an avalanche of male bovine faeces.

8. My colleague, an electronics expert, was astounded to find that sample 1N34A Ge diodes rectified well at 250 uV rms. I hear a lot about the forward voltage of Ge diodes being 300 mV; what does this mean?

Aloha

9. I thought about Feynman's ratchet wheel and pawl thought experiment and am not convinced. It may be possible to have a ratchet wheel and pawl system that rotates intermittently in the lift-pawl-over-slope direction in an all encompassing heat bath:

One way is to use a plurality of unsprung pawls. This would increase the reliability of the pawls as an exponent of the number of pawls. The pawls then don't need the bias of springs and can act as large indistinguishable gas molecules. Without springs, there is no possibility of extra pounding of the ratchet slope to drive the wheel backwards. The wheel will usually be blocked by an extended pawl from rotating in the blocked-by-face direction. The wheel, however, is available for intermittent Brownian motion drive in the lift-pawl-over-slope direction.

Using another method, the pawls may cling to the slope while allowing sliding so gas molecules can't enter to push the pawl away - in this case the wheel would not need a spring to ride on the ratchet wheel where it can be blocked by the overhanging face without overly pushing down on the slope.

The device is overly complex. It is also difficult to aggregate power from many of these wheels. Complex working devices can often be simplified.

Aloha

10. Spring biased pawls need a reducable to a fraction of kTR tendency to lock the rachet wheel in the bottom of rachet slope / face corner position; clinging biased pawls need a reducable to a fraction of kTR tendency to lock the rachet wheel in the clinging - to - the - top - of - the - ratchet - slope position. The pawls of a multiple pawl system need have no tendency to lock.

Aloha

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