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Thread: Proof of contents ratio of the universe. Negative energy, Dark matter, Dark energy

  1. #1 Proof of contents ratio of the universe. Negative energy, Dark matter, Dark energy 
    Forum Freshman icarus2's Avatar
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    Hello!
    I am sorry. I apologize for my poor English.

    Recently, I have try to prove WMAP’s value (matter : dark matter : dark energy = 4.6% : 23.3% : 72.1%)
    Please view to chapter7~8. Demonstration of Constituent Ratio of the Universe
    12p ~
    Article : http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0035


    ** Introduction**
    The existing physical world uses a temporary solution or does a trick to account for accelerating expansion. We introduce corresponding to positive energy in relation to dark energy to avoid negative energy(mass) as source of gravitation. However, this cannot produce accelerating expansion effect. So we introduce the pressure term() which is three times more than that corresponds to the mass energy of dark energy itself, and the density of negative energy(mass) is shifted to this pressure. (‘negative pressure’ is introduced).

    Pressure is expressed like . Thus, the term related to dark energy in the right side of acceleration equation is



    Finally, the result is that the energy that had negative values existed from the beginning.

    --------------------
    HSS(The High-z SupernovaSearch) team : Brian P. Schmidt, et al :
    http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9805201 14P, 26~29lines.

    If : negative mass density
    --------------------

    Friedmann equation utilized mechanical energy conservation applied into positive mass. This is the equation of motion in the universe that is composed of ‘one kind’ of gravitational characteristic.

    However, if there exists two kinds of gravitational sources, GPE(Gravitational Potential Energy) is composed of three terms. (GPE between type 1s)+ ( GPE between type 2s)+ ( GPE between type 1 and type 2)

    When positive mass(energy) and negative mass(energy) exist together, the universe has the following formula.





    It's like this. Herein, as has positive values, it has a repulsive gravitation (antigravity) effect. Therefore, it corresponds to , that of dark energy that accelerates the current universe.



    Figure3. The Friedmann equation can derive from field equation or mechanical energy conservation equation.
    The present cosmological constant can be obtained by adding potential energy to mechanical energy conservation eq..
    If we insert “new potential energy term” into mechanical energy conservation eq., we will get a similar term such as term.

    At this time, insert the new gravitational potential energy term into it.


    If
    , , has a ratio(4.6% : 23.3% : 72.1%) each other,maybe, we will estimate that ratio of energy density such as 4.6% : 23.3% : 72.1% exist.


    Last edited by icarus2; November 10th, 2013 at 08:34 AM.
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  3. #2 Universe where negative mass(energy) and positive mass(energy) are evenly distributed 
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    8. Demonstration of Constituent Ratio of the Universe

    1) Theoretical demonstration of constituent ratio of the universe

    A.Total GPE in the universe that consists of negative mass and positive mass, and dark energy

    Let's find values at the easiest state when matters are evenly distributed and then expand them into the state that shows the current universe.


    Figure 7. Universe where negative mass(energy) and positive mass(energy) are evenly distributed

    Total GPE is as shown in equation (10). As we maintain that each GPE corresponds to matter,dark matter, and dark energy, the following formula can be drawn.


    ---(29)

    The concept of gravitational self-energy which consists of two types of positive mass corresponds to the state that all GPE terms have negative values.


    ---(31),(32)

    Let's consider that any GPE terms that constitute the system do not disappear when finding or .





    As positive masses are evenly distributed in radius R,

    As negative masses are evenly distributed in radius R,

    Therefore, it can be inferred that the dark energy itself will have the following forms.



    In the above, a simple case that positive mass and negative mass are evenly distributed was assumed, but in our real universe, the distribution of positive mass and negative mass are varied. For this reason, coefficient was introduced.

    We can find the current values in observing the universe.

    Planck satellite's result- matter : dark matter : dark energy = 4.9% : 26.8% : 68.3%



    From the equation (31), (32) ( ---(31),(32) )





    Planck's, WMAP's


    B.If positive mass(energy) and negative mass(energy) are completely evenly distributed







    Therefore, total GPE is




    Thus, matter(GPE of positive mass), dark matter(GPE of negative mass), dark energy(GPE between positive mass and negative mass) are

    : : = : : = - 1: - 1:+ 2= 25% :25% :50%




    --- Icarus2


    Last edited by icarus2; October 22nd, 2013 at 03:11 AM.
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  4. #3  
    Forum Freshman icarus2's Avatar
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    We need to be careful for this. The above ratio is not the ratio of mass energy but that of GPE(Gravitational Potential Energy), and the expansion of the universe in this model is determined by GPE.

    In the earlier paper, I showed that the universe was expanding even in the state when total GPE is 0, that is, a complete zero energy state, through computer simulation. This is because GPE that determines the motion of positive mass is not 0 although total GPE is 0.

    From the above (19) and (29) equation,



    There are two GPE terms that include positive mass. This is because the sum of these is not 0.


    C.Current universe: unless positive mass and negative mass are evenly distributed in all scales


    Figure 8. The current universe presumed in this model: Although the positive mass(black dot) constitute galaxy or cluster of galaxies and negative mass(gray) are almost evenly distributed in the entire universe, it is presumed that the density of negative mass near the galaxy(dark gray) would be higher than that of negative mass in the void area(gray), because negative mass receives attractive gravitational effect from large positive mass(Galaxy).


    C-1) If positive mass constitutes galaxy or cluster of galaxies and negative mass are completely distributed evenly

    needs to be corrected because it’s not that positive mass is completely distributed evenly.

    Let's get a hint from the movement between the sun and the earth!

    Total GPE between the sun and the earth is

    = Sun's gravitational self-energy + Earth's gravitational self-energy + GPE between thesun and the earth





    However, the particles that constitute the sun always move together because they are strongly bond gravitationally. Likewise, the particles that constitute the earth always move together because they are strongly bond gravitationally. Therefore, what determines the movement between the sun and the earth is the only ‘GPE between the sun and the earth’.

    In other words, the GPE of objects that are strongly bond gravitationally does not change. It means that the GPE of objects that are strongly bond gravitationally does not contribute to the movement of other objects.

    We can see that galaxies or cluster of galaxies are strongly bond gravitationally. Thus, we should subtract these GPE terms.



    * : (Probably)Total mass of matters(positive mass) within Hubble's radius or the visible universe
    *R : (Probably) Hubble's radius or the visible universe's radius
    * : Average mass of objects strongly bond gravitationally (Probably, mass ofgalaxies or cluster of galaxies)
    * : Average radius of objects strongly bond gravitationally
    *N : Number of objects strongly bond gravitationally
    *,
    Last edited by icarus2; October 22nd, 2013 at 03:12 AM.
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  5. #4 Value of the WMAP and Planck satellite 
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    On the other hand, negative mass has gravitation effect which is repulsive each other. Accordingly, if we assume that the entire universe is almost evenly distributed, (Refer to simulation: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MZtS7cBMIc4)










    ,


    Now, let's find dark energy.

    If ,

    From the equation (31),






    i) WMAP




    Therefore,
    = - 0.197: - 1: + 2.803 = 4.93% :25.00% :70.07%

    It's very close to WMAP value.

    ii) Planck




    Therefore,
    = - 0.183: - 1: + 2.817= 4.58% : 25.00% : 70.42%

    Also, it's similar to the estimation data of Planck satellite. Therefore, this model has potential.


    C-2) If positive mass constitutes galaxy orcluster of galaxies and negative mass is close to the structure surrounding the cluster of galaxies
    To be continued…

    Please view to chapter8. Demonstration of Constituent Ratio of the Universe
    1. Article : http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0035




    --- Icarus2
    Last edited by icarus2; October 22nd, 2013 at 06:36 AM.
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  6. #5  
    Moderator Moderator Markus Hanke's Avatar
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    MODERATOR NOTE : I am tentatively moving this to "New Hypothesis", since models involving "negative mass" are certainly not part of established cosmology, but at best hypothetical concepts. Feel free to continue discussing it here.
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  7. #6 Negative mass exists with higher density near the galaxies or cluster of galaxies that constitute positive mass. 
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    C-2) If positive mass constitutes galaxy orcluster of galaxies and negative mass is close to the structure surrounding the cluster of galaxies

    From the motional characteristics of negative mass and positive mass, great positive mass gives attractive effect to the individual negative mass. Therefore, negative mass exists with higher density near the galaxies or cluster of galaxies that constitute positive mass. (Refer to figure 8. and motion of the negative mass :Negative mass Negative energy Dark energy Dark matter)


    Figure 9. 0 ~ : positive mass distribution, ~ : negative mass distribution



    In classical mechanics, the fact that GPE is given as follows can be found through calculation, in case of mass distribution that are empty and are occupied.



    However, part of the negative mass are evenly distributed in the entire universe like figure8, and some are distributed near the cluster of galaxies that constitute positive mass.


    * : Constituents that are evenly distributed in the entire universe
    * : Constituents near the cluster of galaxies that constitutes positive mass









    Currently, and are has complex shape. So it's not organized nicely. This leaves us the next research problems. At this point in time, we want to prove the possibility of this model(Pair creation model of negative energy and positive energy) based on what's observed.

    C-2)-1) If









    We define ,



    Last edited by icarus2; October 22nd, 2013 at 06:01 PM.
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  8. #7  
    Forum Freshman icarus2's Avatar
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    i) WMAP







    = -0.184: - 0.932: + 2.884 = 4.6% :23.3% :72.1%


    ii) Planck







    It's reasonable to assume that the upper limit of coefficient is 1. The below is the value when the upper limit of coefficient is corrected as 1.





    = -0.183: - 1: + 2.549 = 4.9% :26.8% :68.3%


    C-2)-2) If

    This value(eq.(34)) is the value of dark energy obtained when positive mass(energy) and negative mass(energy) are evenly distributed in 8-1)-B.

    As it is seen that the universe transforms locally from uniform state to un-uniform one, coefficient (- 2) plays a role like lower limit. It's because tends to increase if positive mass and negative mass are gravitationally shrunk in local area.







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  9. #8  
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    i) WMAP







    = -0.128: - 0.648: + 2.000 = 4.6% :23.3% :72.1%


    ii) Planck







    = -0.143: - 0.782: + 2.000 = 4.9% :26.8% :68.3%


    D. Entire change
    Uniformly distribution --> locally un-uniform distribution

    D-1) Uniformly distribution









    D-2)Locally un-uniform distribution

    i) WMAP



    ]


    ii) Planck








    We can answer the CCC problem of “Why does dark energy have the similar scale with matters?". It is because it has the same gravitational effect as them.
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  10. #9 It is necessary to investigate the change of the ratio between matter and dark matter 
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    D. Entire change
    Uniformly distribution --> locally un-uniform distribution

    D-1) Uniformly distribution

    = - 1 : - 1 : +2 = 25% : 25% : 50%


    D-2)Locally un-uniform distribution

    ii) Planck

    = -0.143 ~ -0.183 : - 0.782 ~ -1.000 : + 2.000 ~ +2.549 = 4.9%: 26.8% : 68.3%


    è



    New Prediction ◆

    =====================
    model expects that the ratio of matters and dark matters will be constant, but this model suggests that as the universe expands, the gravitational effect of matters vs dark matters differs.
    Finally, in the current mainstream physical description, we will describe that the amount of dark matters gradually increases. Therefore, the past and the future predicted by two models are different.
    =====================
    Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the change of the ratio

    We cannot conclude that this model is wrong although this model is different from the values of the existing model. It's because if model is right, the model has to account for and as completely as possible,but they are not successful now.
    The reason why the entire explanation of at this point in time seems to be right is that the repulsive gravitation effect corresponding to and the attractive gravitational effect corresponding to CDM are required. However, this can be explained by this model(Pair creation model of positive energy and negative energy) and adding to this, negative mass(energy) is the object that satisfies energy conservation and the object which is inevitably required from the law of energy conservation.
    We need to make new Friedmann equations and new field equation on the assumption that negative energy(mass) and positive energy(mass) coexist and compare two models.


    1. Article :http://vixra.org/abs/1309.0035

    --- Icarus2
    Last edited by icarus2; October 25th, 2013 at 01:12 PM.
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