Thread: I need help on writing a paper.

1. I am writing a paper on a scientific theory.

For those of you who have not kept up with the other thread related to it, it is a theory of aboluste relativity. The theory defines relativity with absolute space.

This sound much stranger than it really is, however it follows the laws of physics and observable data as you will see in the paper.

I have not written a paper before and I do not know exactly how to go about it.

I would prefer to, in repsect of einstein and the vast use of his work, to follow his style of the paper.

The paper I am going to submit to the science community at large. Hopefully a journal would take it?

The theory is absolutely testable. One test may change science forever. Finally opening the doors to unified theory.

I will add the begginning rough draft in the next post.

2.

3. The Theory of Absolute Relativity

Introduction
This is a theory of relativity with a form of luminiferous aether of absolute rest. In this paper it is shown the possible flaw in the original testing for luminiferous aether in the famous Michelson-Morely experiment. Furthermore, it goes on to show all experimental data and laws of physics can still be obeyed by a form of absolute rest and luminiferous aether. Lastly the required apparatus to correctly test to show a form or lack of luminiferous aether.

Experimental Data
In the original Michelson-Morely experiment it was expected to have light wave results similar to that of sound waves or water waves. However, this is not the case in the operation of luminiferous aether. It must be considered that any wave of light must comply to the constant velocity of C in all frames of observation, most importantly the absolute rest frame of aether. It is possible to get two types of C depending on which technique you measure the speed of light, both still obey the constant of light to all observers (note: this is possible when we accept light that moves away from an observer can NOT be considered directly observable thus its values elude the observer, but will remain a value of C when measured after its return trip to that same observer). These two types are 1) The time it takes for light to reach a distant detector according to the observer(at light source). 2) The time it takes for light to travel a path and reflect back to the observer.

Let us look at the details behind the latter descriptions.

If you are not familiar with the Michelson-Morely experiment, Visit this link ( http://galileoandeinstein.physics.vi...ts/mmexpt6.htm ) to become familiar with the apparatus and experiment. This experiment was designed to measure a difference in arrival time for the two different paths of light.

The theory of absolute relativity hypothesises there will never be a difference in arrival times between the two different paths of light in an aether enviroment while the system is in motion through the aether, using the configuration in the past Michelson Morely experiment.

There are 5 images including four stages and a conclusion tablet of the Michelson-Morley Experiment.

The system is moving through the aether at a velocity of 0.1C.

Image 1. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment.jpg
step 1:The light leaves the laser (light source) at 0.9C head on into the aether which is traveling 0.1C. This is in accordance with experimental data of wave mechanics. The aether is expected to create a wind effect that would differ the velocity of light moving 'upstream' as it were.

Image 2. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment2.jpg
step 2:The light splits into the two perpendicular paths. The green arrow (we call A) remains going 0.9C, as the paths has been unchanged.
The red arrow (we call B) turns perpendicular to the aether and is now capable to travel at C or 1C, because it is not moving parrallel with the motion of the proposed aether.

Image 3. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment3.jpg
step 3:The light reflects and returns to the center mirror. Historically it was not calculated that the light could measure beyond C relative to the apparatus. However, it is absolutely acceptable for the light to reach C relative to the aether on its return trip, thus creating a measurement 1.1C relative to the experiment system. Although, the apparatus observer must take into consideration its own velocity relative to the aether. As so we have;
Observer velocity 0.1C, Light velocity C. Thus the distance that is covered between observer and the light is 1.1C, although this does not affect the true velocity of the light, and all laws of physics are obeyed.

Image4. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment4.jpg
The light waves turn on the final stretch to make there way to the detector, perpendicular to the aether at a velocity of 1C, at this point they have regained equal posistion (as will be seen in the table of image 5).
note: one arrow was crossed out to show that they have returned to one wave form again.

Image5. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment5.jpg
This table shows the different velocities of the light relative the experiment system in each step. At the end of the trip the total velocity remains equal. I called this net velocity, however, it is the average velocity that is also equal. In the past they didnt expect aether to be able to function in a way to have light remain as a constant for observers. In the way I have shown, I hypothesis it can.

Here we see that in the past, the expectation of having light act like sound waves or water waves, was incorrect and the experiment would fail because of that. If light acted similar to sound waves it would not coincide with experimental evidence that C remains constant. However, as just previously described, when the source of light is can have a varying velocity of emition, it will agree with lights observed constant.

How is light able to exceed C relative to an inertial frame as it leaves 'downstream' into the aether?

Enter E=MC^2.

While obeying the law that nothing can exceed the speed of light, a moving object is predicted to be able to send light faster in the direction opposite of motion than it is in the direction of motion relative to the observer of that source. In doing so it obeys the law of light always traveling C, relative to the aether, which as mentioned, works into being constant for all observers in conventional return trip measurements.

It is due to this that an atom has the energy of the square of the velocity of light in a magnitude of the multiplication of its total mass.
In order to obey the constant of C in aether mechanics the atom must be capable to act in speeds beyond C relative to itself to match C relative to the aether. However, it is possible for an atom to act this way as said ealier:
(note: this is possible when we accept light that moves away from an observer can NOT be considered directly observable thus its values elude the observer, but will remain a value of C when measured after its return trip to that same observer).

How to correctly detect a form of aether.

In my understanding, if the Michelson-Morely Experiment was rearranged to only send light in a strait line from, source to a detector a detectable result would be possible, to prove and or correctly disprove a moving aether wind.

An example of the corrected appartus.
Note: light sources aimed in perpendicular angles

laser (light source 1a) to ------------> detector (1b) @ angle x

laser (light source) (2a) to ------------> detector (2b) @ angle y

The prediction of this theory is that the result would find:
- a difference in arrival time for the two light sources
- a difference in frequencies between the two lights (if their sources were identical
- a velocity of the aether

This is a general simple form of the experiment. If the light was capable to make a return trip the experiment would fail to show any change between the two light paths and light would be measured to be a constant of C. The light must make one path from A to B to detect any change.

Conclusion
It is possible for medium (aether) like universe to obey the laws of physics and create the same experimental observation that have been performed to test the theory of SR with space-time.

Support on this theory.

http://www.wbabin.net/physics/kingston.htm
A length of 20 meters for each arm should be adequate, since the experiment based on the Mossbauer effect using a gamma ray from iron-57 (‘Harvard Tower Experiment’ by Pound, Rebka, and Snyder) was able to show the difference in speed over a distance of about 22.6 meters, although the results were interpreted as a change of energy rather than speed.
The Mössbauer effect

With his hastily-constructed apparatus, Mössbauer recorded the recoilless nuclear resonance absorption of -rays by iridium-191 as a function of the linear (tangential) speed of the source.

The angle of light source propogation in respect to space can directly affect the frequency emitted from a gas that is excited by the same light (energy) source.

4. The theory hypothesises the reasoning for the following and predicts them in based on the foundation of postulates.

- explaination of E=MC^2 (how to reach this conclusion without previous equations)
- Time dilation
- Length contraction
- mass dilation
- gravity
- electromagnetic forces
- uncertainty principle
- quantum entanglement
- graviational lensing
- gravitational time dilation
- Constant of the speed of light
- Universal restriction of the C

A possible lead to unified theory.

5. Do you think Experimentation is the right section for your thread? I don't know enough about the subject to say it isn't, but it seems misplaced here.

6. There is a listed experiment that is the point of the paper, to prove the theory.

Also I am experimenting with paper writeups...

if someone could offer some previously written papers, and or outlines that'd be great.

7. **rough draft**

Need help with this section.
Image5. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment5.jpg
This table shows the different velocities of the light relative the experiment system in each step and direction.
We see in the table that although the velocities changed in one way directions, they cancle out as 1C.
0.9C + 1.1C = 2C. The average is 1C. Or the "return trip" would result in C.
noteunable to show this step where 0.9 one way and 1.1 the other equates as equal to the time of C for both ways: help?)

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The Theory of Absolute Relativity

Introduction
This is a theory of relativity with a form of absolute reference frame. In this paper it is shown that the current laws of physics can still be obeyed by a form of absolute rest (which is hypothesised as an aether). Support is given to this hypothesis by exposing a possible flaw in the original testing for a static reference frame in the famous Michelson-Morely experiment (an experiment that was expected to detect an effect known as an 'aether wind' and more importantly an aether medium). Also, there is a description of the required apparatus to correctly test a form or lack of static medium for light. Furthermore, the paper considers the option of relativity with absolute reference frame (absolute relativity) with relativity without an absolute frame (special relativity) and that shows the indentical simularities between the two theories and what the few differences conclude. Lastly, the list of support for this theory; support from past experiments.

The Michelson-Morely experiment
In the original Michelson-Morely experiment it was expected to have light wave results similar to that of sound waves or water waves. In the following we see that with or without this expectation the results would remain the same as they were always found to be; No difference in arrival time for two seperate paths of light over the same distance, from the same source, and finally to the same detector.

Note: By law of the universal constant of C, light must travel at C relative to each individual observer.

If you are not familiar with the Michelson-Morely experiment, Visit this link ( http://galileoandeinstein.physics.vi...ts/mmexpt6.htm ) to become familiar with the apparatus and experiment.
Using this program (by increasing the aether speed) you will see a change in the arrival times of the two different photon paths (light paths). These were the expected results that would be found if an aether existed.

In the following we show the proposed flaw in the MM experiment. This flaw is that the arrangement of the apparatus is and was unable to detect an aether wind whether it is or was there or not. According to absolute relativity lights velocity can be measured in two techniques.

Technique One:

Simply send light from a destination (source and considered observation frame) to a destination where it will reflect and return to the source/observer. The time it covers the specific distance in the total round trip journey is measured as the velocity of light. This configuration of measuring the speed of light has been found to be a consistant velocity for light in any direction the pathway of the light was configured. Which is initially expected to support non-absolute space by reason of constant velocity of light.

Technique Two.

(Note: Principle of Absolute relativity; No observation frame (observer) can detect and/or measure light that is emitted from its frame)

Light is sent in a strait A to B path from source to a detector. The clocks for observer and detector have to be previously syncronised. The clocks need to be accurate enough to detect a change in the range of approx. 0.0001 of a second
see here: (30km/sec [earths predicted speed] / 300,000km/s [about lights speed] = ) 0.0001.
The light must be sent in various directions; a) parrallel to the motion of the apparatus (earths motion); in the same and opposite direction. b) perpendicular to the motion of the apparatus (earths motion), in both perpendicular directions (seperately).
Thus once this has been peformed one can conclude the speed of light traveling from a source to a detector (A to B) is consistant with C.

(Note: No round trips! the observer must not detect the light that was emitted from its frame. In order to measure the velocity, the clocks between the observer and the destination [detector] must compare actual arrival time [for detector] with calculated arrival time [considering the distance of A to B and the velocity of light] for the observer.)

(Note that the MM experiment does not include the form of technique two.)

The following is the calculated result of the MM experiment in respect of the two techniques to measure the speed of light:

For mathamatical purposes:
The system is moving through the aether at a velocity of 0.1C.
Velocity(light) = Velocity(source) + C, or V(l) = V(s) + C
note: C is speed of light
note: Velocity(light) relative to the observer (the system). Also, the Velocity(source) is negetive (-) in upstream aether and remains positive (+) in downstream & perpendicular motion relative to the observer (we exclude a velocity change when the light makes a perpendicular path relative to the system due to the very small change for simplified explanation).

Image 1. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment.jpg
step 1:The light leaves the laser (light source) head on into the aether. The measured and calculated velocity of the photon is 0.9C relative to the source frame (the system 0.1C). In respect to light moving through an absolute medium the movement through such an aether is expected to create a wind effect that would affect the velocity of the light as it made its way through relative to the observer.

Light path A & B:
V(l) = -V(s) + C
V(l) = (-0.1C) + C
V(l) = 0.9C

Image 2. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment2.jpg
step 2:The light splits into the two perpendicular paths. The green arrow (we call A) remains going 0.9C, as the paths has been unchanged.
The red arrow (we call B) turns perpendicular to the aether and is reflected from the center mirrior at what is now capable to travel at C or 1C.

Light path A:
V(l) = -V(s) + C
V(l) = (-0.1C) + C
V(l) = 0.9C

Light path B:
V(l) = V(s) + C
V(l) = (0.1 C) + C
V(l) = 1.1C

Image 3. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment3.jpg
step 3:The light reflects from the outter most mirrors (of equal distance from center) and returns to the center mirror.

Light path A:
V(l) = V(s) + C
V(l) = (0.1C) + C
V(l) = 1.1C

Light path B:
V(l) = V(s) + C
V(l) = (0) + C
V(l) = 1C

Image4. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment4.jpg
The light path A reflects from the mirror and turns pependicular to the system on the final stretch to make there way to the detector.
note: one arrow was crossed out to show that they have returned to one wave form again. Light path B passes unchanged through the half silvered mirror (center mirror) and continues on its way to the detector.

Light path A:
V(l) = V(s) + C
V(l) = (0) + C
V(l) = 1C

Light path B:
V(l) = V(s) + C
V(l) = (0) + C
V(l) = 1C

Image5. http://www3.telus.net/hill/MichExperiment5.jpg
This table shows the different velocities of the light relative the experiment system in each step and direction.
We see in the table that although the velocities changed in one way directions, they cancle out as 1C.
0.9C + 1.1C = 2C. The average is 1C. Or the "return trip" would result in C.
noteunable to show this step where 0.9 one way and 1.1 the other equates as equal to the time of C for both ways: help?)

However, when we look at the velocity of the light relative to the aether (absolute frame) through each path and step we get.

Velocity(light relative to aether) = Velocity(light relative to source) + Velocity(system/observer)

note: towards source is negetive (-) and towards or perpendicular remains positive for Velocity(light relative to source)

Equation flip:
Velocity(light relative to source) + Velocity(system/observer) = Velocity(light relative to aether)

path A
step
a)0.9 + 0.1 = 1
b)0.9 + 0.1 = 1
c)1.1 - 0.1 = 1
d)1 + 0 = 1
(we see in path A of light, it remained C at all times relative to the aether, and C relative to the observer [when it returned])

path B:
step
a)0.9 + 0.1 = 1
b)1 + 0 = 1
c)1 + 0 = 1
d)1 + 0 = 1
(we see in path B of light, it remained C at all times relative to the aether, and C relative to the observer for return trip measurment.

Thus the velocity of light in conventional measurement obey's the constant speed of light for both aether and observer.

How to correctly detect a form of aether.

If Michelson-Morely Experiment was rearranged in the following configuration an result could be found in an aether enviroment.

An example of the corrected appartus.
Note: light sources aimed in perpendicular angles

laser (light source 1a) to ------------> detector (1b) @ angle x

laser (light source) (2a) to ------------> detector (2b) @ angle y

The prediction of this theory is that the result would find:
- a difference in arrival time for the two light sources
- a difference in frequencies between the two lights (if their sources were identical
- a velocity of the aether

This is a general simple form of the experiment. If the light was capable to make a return trip the experiment would fail to show any change between the two light paths and light would be measured to be a constant of C. The light must make one path from A to B to detect any change with aether effects being hypothesised.

Special Relativity with Hypothesised Absolute Relativity.

The following list is the simularities and differences between the theories and the consequences.

Simularities

Special Relativity:
- Special principle of relativity - The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. In other words, there are no privileged inertial frames of reference.
- Invariance of c - The speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant (c) which is independent of the motion of the light source.
-proved true or false by measuring the constant speed of light in both mentioned techniques in all directions.

Absolute Relativity:
- Special principle of relativity - The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference. In other words, there are no privileged inertial frames of reference.
- Invariance of c - The speed of light in a vacuum is a universal constant (c) which is independent of the motion of the light source (with return trip measurments).
-proved true or false by measuring the constant speed of light in both mentioned techniques in all directions.

Differences:

Special Relativity:
-No stationary reference frame
-distance and time depend on the observer, and that time and space are perceived differently, depending on the observer. (space-time).
-no properties of aether

Absolute Relativity:
-stationary reference frame
-distance and time is fixed: Time has two explainations. 1)That what light shows and the rate of which it is seen within an observation frame 2)A constant fixed time among all material in the universe in syncronization. Distance and posistion of objects is uncertain at relativistic velocities. That is the posistion of the object relative to the observed light is not the same, thus the object is equal (=) time (t) in the future to the observer as is the time in which it takes the light to reach the observer over the specific distance, and futhermore is also dependent on the objects velocity relative to the observer.
-properties of aether are that light can only be made into its wave form at the velocity of C which is determined by the permittivity and permeability of that space. The atom as freedom to act up to the velocity of C relative to the aether. Eg. If an object was moving at 0.9C through space it would be capable act in 0.9C + C away from the direction of travel, and 0.1C in the direction of travel. The propose element here is that this is the reasoning behind E=MC^2.

The concluding accertion:
The hypothesised result of these simularites and differences is that all observed experimental data can be explained in two options; Special Relativity and Absolute Relativity. The explainations to specific experiments is not yet included in this paper. It is possible for medium (aether) like universe to obey the laws of physics and create the same experimental observation that have been performed to test the theory of SR with space-time mechanics.

Support on this theory from past experiments

In my research I came across an experiment in the past that found a change in the frequency of light emitted from a gas that was excited by a source of light. The source of light and gas was placed on a turntable in which it could change directions relative to space as it did a change in wavelength occured.

The following are the links of which support this claim.

http://www.wbabin.net/physics/kingston.htm
A length of 20 meters for each arm should be adequate, since the experiment based on the Mossbauer effect using a gamma ray from iron-57 (‘Harvard Tower Experiment’ by Pound, Rebka, and Snyder) was able to show the difference in speed over a distance of about 22.6 meters, although the results were interpreted as a change of energy rather than speed.
The Mössbauer effect

Check near Fig 4 (below Enter Mossbauer)