1. Mathematics seems to be the best way of calculating projections and angles. The pressing question for me is, if space is empty and goes into infinity; can mathematic calculations be used to give reliable results?

2.

3. No, mathematics cannot answer all questions in science. You can make a mathematical model, but it still has to be confirmed by observations. Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.

4. Originally Posted by Harold14370
No, mathematics cannot answer all questions in science. You can make a mathematical model, but it still has to be confirmed by observations. Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Sorry I did not understand this part, where can I find information to substantiate this? The reason I ask this is mainly to understand why things are always squared off in maths.

Originally Posted by Harold14370
No, mathematics cannot answer all questions in science. You can make a mathematical model, but it still has to be confirmed by observations. Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Sorry I did not understand this part, where can I find information to substantiate this? The reason I ask this is mainly to understand why things are always squared off in maths.
Take for example, Newtons laws of motion. They describe the motion of objects very well for speeds much less than the speed of light. If you use Newtons equations to calculate the motion of objects near the speed of light, you will still get an answer. Mathematically, everything will look fine. It just won't match the observed motion.

6. Originally Posted by Harold14370
Originally Posted by Harold14370
No, mathematics cannot answer all questions in science. You can make a mathematical model, but it still has to be confirmed by observations. Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Mathematical models can be internally consistent without accurately representing any physical process.
Sorry I did not understand this part, where can I find information to substantiate this? The reason I ask this is mainly to understand why things are always squared off in maths.
Take for example, Newtons laws of motion. They describe the motion of objects very well for speeds much less than the speed of light. If you use Newtons equations to calculate the motion of objects near the speed of light, you will still get an answer. Mathematically, everything will look fine. It just won't match the observed motion.
The sine wave was taught to us to be the natural waveform of the earth. When we observe it we see it has many harmonics aligned with it. The square wave is not natural but made from the sine wave. The square is used to give things a measurable stable point of reference. it is used in so many of modern day calculations we all take for granted, but why is it used, and is it accurate?

The sine wave was taught to us to be the natural waveform of the earth.
This sounds like some mystical BS. There are certain natural processes that produce sine waves, or something close to it, but that does not make it "the natural waveform of the earth."
When we observe it we see it has many harmonics aligned with it. The square wave is not natural but made from the sine wave.
A square wave can be approximated by superimposing sine waves. It can also be created simply by opening and closing a switch periodically.
The square is used to give things a measurable stable point of reference. it is used in so many of modern day calculations we all take for granted, but why is it used, and is it accurate?
I don't know what this means. Are you referring to a clock circuit in a computer, perhaps? Sometimes sine waves are used in clock circuits as discussed here.
Clock signal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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