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Thread: Which is the Best University in HIstory?

  1. #1 Which is the Best University in HIstory? 
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    Millennium Ranking of the Universities

    Why the Millennium Ranking?

    Global university ranking has become a common phenomenon, but the results have been mixed at the best.
    The THES – QS ranking depends on subjective methods, which in turn is a reflection of personal impressions of the interested parties. The top four have been typically Harvard, Yale, Oxford and Cambridge. Even though I did not expect such a rating to be balanced and objective, it is still astonishing to see that 19 out of the top 20 universities are in the English-speaking countries, which inevitably undermines its credibility.
    The ENS professional ranking, on the other hand, is based on the income and power of the graduates. This pragmatic approach has been hampered by the impact of the differential cost of living that is rather difficult to calibrate to say the least. The outcome of this ranking is also highly biased, as indicated by the fact that four out of the top ten are Japanese universities, an indicator of the high cost of living in Japan rather than a better education.
    The so-called academic ranking by Shanghai Jiaotong University is allegedly obtained by calculating the papers on Nature, Science and those cited by SCI、SSCI、AHCI, etc. This kind of indiscriminate addition of numbers fails to take into account of the differential significance of research projects in different fields, and strongly favor those universities producing a large amount of low quality papers. Perhaps the project leaders thought that this undesirable influence could be neutralized by including papers on big name journals such as Nature and Science. In reality, it merely produces new distortions as the two journals are devoted exclusively to natural science especially life science, which is only a small part of the university research and education. Worst of all, it has been found that the results is irreproducible by independent parties. Obviously, the credibility of this ranking is in doubt.
    Regardless, all the existing rankings are current rankings, which could not reflect the historical contribution of relevant schools and the overall trend of evolution of the rankings. Hence, it leaves much to be desired. This is particularly obvious if we consider the fact that the modern university system has a history of approximately one thousand years, during which time a modern industrial civilization sprung up. We gained tremendous progress, if I may, in our understanding of the universe, the structure of matters, the life on earth, as well as the psychological and social phenomena, and made numerous attempts to renew our theory of ethics, belief, and philosophy. It was within the time frame that things took place and evolved; we may not be able to gain a complete understanding of it without considering the time factor as it played and still plays a critical role in determining our lifestyle and our way of thinking.
    For this purpose, a new method of evaluating the scholars has been devised, which would receive further treatment later, to evaluate historical performance of various institutes. The result speaks for itself on the validity of this approach.

    Methods and Conclusion

    First of all, a number of outstanding scholars were selected based on their achievements. No quota was given to any fields of study. As matter of fact, all the fields are merely divided into five areas: physical sciences, engineering, biology, medicine, and arts. A high standard was adopted to minimize the differential academic attainment by different scholars. Politicians with important influence on the history are also included. Altogether, approximately 1400 names were selected. Each selected person gives a positive score to relevant colleges and universities. The sum becomes the score of the schools, which forms the basis of the ranking. Only the existing universities are ranked. A university that have been functioning as a single entity but divided recently is treated as a single university. All the colleges and affiliated institutes are considred part of a university.

    I. Academic Ranking

    A. Millennium Cumulative Ranking

    The following reflects the cumulative scores from the 11th until the 20th century.

    1 Université de Paris
    2 University of Cambridge
    3 Harvard University
    4 Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin
    5 Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
    6 University of Oxford
    7 University of Chicago
    8 Columbia University
    9 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    10 Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова
    11 Princeton University
    12 University of California, Berkeley
    13 University of London
    14 École Polytechnique
    15 Cornell University
    15 Leland Stanford Junior University
    17 Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет
    18 California Institute of Technology
    19 École normale supérieure
    20 Yale University
    21 Ludwig-Maximilian-Universität München
    22 Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich
    23 Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg
    24 Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna
    25 Universität Leipzig
    26 Università degli Studi di Padova
    27 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn
    28 Johns Hopkins University
    29 Universiteit Leiden
    30 Université de Strasbourg
    31 Universität Wien
    32 University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    33 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    34 University of Wisconsin-Madison
    35 Københavns Universitet
    35 Московский Физико-Технический институт
    37 New York University
    37 University of California, Los Angeles
    39 University of Edinburgh
    39 University of Minnesota
    39 Universität Hamburg
    42 Российский государственный университет имени Иммануэла Канта
    43 Università degli Studi di Roma “La Sapienza”
    43 Technische Universität München
    43 University of Pennsylvania
    43 東京大学 Tokyo univ.
    43 University of California, San Diego
    48 Università degli Studi di Pavia
    48 Philipps-Universität Marburg
    50 Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg
    50 Victoria University of Manchester
    50 University of Calcutta (কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়)
    53 Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
    53 Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg
    53 Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena
    53 École nationale des ponts et chaussées
    53 Technische Universität Berlin
    53 Uniwersytet Warszawski
    59 Universität Basel
    59 Universität Zürich
    59 École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris
    59 University of Toronto
    59 City College of New York (City University of New York)
    59 University of Washington
    59 Rockefeller University
    66 Uniwersytet Wrocławski
    66 Carnegie Mellon University
    66 京都大学 Kyoto Univ.
    69 Universidade de Coimbra
    69 University of St Andrews
    69 Università di Pisa
    69 Universiteit Utrecht
    69 Московский государственный технический университет им. Н. Э. Бауманаа
    69 Duke University
    69 Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Политехнический Университет
    76 Univerzity Karlovy v Praze
    76 Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg
    76 Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz
    76 McGill University
    80 University of Glasgow
    80 Uppsala universitet
    80 Université de Genève
    80 Università degli Studi di Torino
    80 Friedrich-Alexander-University, Erlangen-Nuremberg
    80 Imperial College, London
    80 University of Texas at Austin
    87 Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel
    87 Université de Lyon
    87 Case Western Reserve University
    87 Washington University in St. Louis
    87 Universiteit van Amsterdam
    92 Universidad de Salamanca
    92 Uniwersytet Jagielloński w Krakowski
    92 Università degli Studi di Ferrara
    92 University of Dublin
    92 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
    92 Universität Karlsruhe
    92 University of Virginia
    92 École centrale Paris
    92 University of Colorado
    92 Vanderbilt University
    92 University of Bristol
    103 Université de Montpellier
    103 Universität Rostock
    103 Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
    103 Львівський національний університет імені Івана Франка
    103 Budapesti Műszaki és Gazdaságtudományi Egyetem
    103 Казанский государственный университет
    103 Харківський національний університет імені Каразіна
    103 Amherst College
    103 Indiana University
    103 Universidade de São Paulo
    103 University of Sheffield
    103 Université Libre de Bruxelles
    103 Purdue University
    103 Illinois Institute of Technology
    103 Московский городской народный университет имени А. Л. Шанявского
    103 Урáльский госудáрственный университéт и́мени А.М. Гóрького
    103 Московский авиационный институт
    120 جامعة القرويين‎
    120 Université d'Orléans
    120 Università degli Studi di Firenze
    120 University of Groningen
    120 Tartu Ülikool
    120 Karolinska institutet
    120 Universiteit Gent
    120 George Washington University
    120 Санкт-Петербургский Технологический Институт
    120 University of California, San Francisco
    120 Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule Aachen
    120 Ohio State University
    120 Stockholms universitet
    120 University of Liverpool
    120 École Supérieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles de la Ville de Paris
    120 Націона́льний техні́чний університе́т Украї́ни «Ки́ївський політехні́чний інститу́т»
    120 北京大学 Peking univ.
    120 University of British Columbia
    120 Australian National University
    120 Московский Инженерно-Физический Институт
    120 Новосибирский Государственный Университет
    141 Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II
    141 Université de Toulouse
    141 Université catholique de Louvain
    141 Université de Caen Basse-Normandie
    141 Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
    141 Universidad Complutense de Madrid
    141 Brown University
    141 University of Pittsburgh
    141 Université de Bordeaux
    141 University of Birmingham
    141 University of Cape Town
    141 University of Leeds
    141 Київський національний університет імені Тараса Шевченка
    141 University of Florida
    141 University of Melbourne
    141 University of Maryland, College Park
    141 Università degli Studi di Milano
    141 Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main
    141 State University of New York at Stony Brook
    160 Università degli Studi di Perugia
    160 Universitat de Barcelona
    160 Université de Poitiers
    160 Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald
    160 Nancy-Université
    160 Lund Universitet
    160 Dartmouth College
    160 Universitetet i Oslo
    160 Universidad de Buenos Aires
    160 University of Rochester
    160 University of Sydney
    160 Pennsylvania State University
    160 University of Mumbai (मुंबई विद्यापीठ)
    160 大阪大学 Osaka Univ.
    160 University of the Punjab (جامعه پنجاب)
    160 The University of Auckland
    160 清华大学 Tsinghua Univ.
    160 University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
    160 Freie Universität Berlin
    In total there are 178 institutes listed above.

    B. Centennial Ranking
    All names are modern to avoid any confusion.

    11th -12th Centuries
    1 Univ. Paris
    2 Alma Mater Studiorum Univ. Bologna
    3 Univ. Oxford

    13th -14th Centuries

    1 Univ. Paris
    2 Alma Mater Studiorum Univ. Bologna
    3 Univ. Oxford
    4 Univ. Perugia

    15th Century
    1 Alma Mater Studiorum Univ. Bologna
    2 Univ. Paris
    2 Univ. Ferrara
    4 Univ. Oxford
    4 Univ. Padova
    4 Univ. Cambridge

    16th Century
    1 Univ. Padova
    2 Univ. Paris
    3 Alma Mater Studiorum Univ. Bologna
    4 Univ. Oxford
    5 Univ. Cambridge
    5 Univ. Pisa
    7 Univ. Leiden
    8 Univ. Coimbra
    8 Univ. catholique Louvain
    10 Univ. Salamanca
    10 Univ. Poitiers
    10 Univ. Basel

    17th Century
    1 Univ. Oxford
    2 Univ. Cambridge
    2 Univ. Paris
    4 Alma Mater Studiorum Univ. Bologna
    4 Univ. Padova
    4 Univ. Basel
    4 Univ. Leiden
    8 Københavns Univ.
    8 Univ. Edinburgh

    18th Century
    1 École Polytechnique
    2 Univ. Paris
    3 Georg-August-Univ. Göttingen
    4 Humboldt-Univ. Berlin
    5 École natl. des ponts et chaussées
    6 Univ. Cambridge
    6 Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena
    8 Санкт-Петербургский гос. унив.
    9 Российский гос. унив. Иммануэла Канта
    9 Univ. Edinburgh
    11 Univ. Oxford
    11 Univ. Pavia
    11 Univ. Leipzig
    11 Univ. Torino
    11 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn
    There are 15 institutions in total.

    19th Century
    1 Humboldt-Univ. Berlin
    2 Georg-August-Univ. Göttingen
    3 Univ. Paris
    4 Univ. Cambridge
    5 Санкт-Петербургский гос. унив.
    6 Univ. London
    7 Ludwig-Maximilian-Univ. München
    8 Harvard Univ.
    9 Московский гос. унив. М. В. Ломоносова
    10 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn
    11 Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg
    12 École Polytechnique
    12 Eidgenössische Tech. Hoch. Zürich
    12 Univ. Chicago
    15 Univ. Oxford
    15 Univ. Leipzig
    17 Univ. Wien
    18 Columbia Univ.
    19 Univ. Strasbourg
    20 École norm. sup.
    21 Johns Hopkins Univ.
    22 Univ. Zürich
    22 Philipps-Univ. Marburg
    22 Uniw. Wrocławski
    22 Cornell Univ.
    26 Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg
    26 Princeton Univ.
    26 École natl. sup.mines Paris
    26 Univ. Calcutta (কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়)
    30 Российский государственный университет имени Иммануэла Канта
    30 Univ. Leiden
    30 Karl-Franzens-Univ. Graz
    30 Univ. California, Berkeley
    There are 33 institutions in total.

    20th Century
    1 Harvard Univ.
    2 Massachusetts Inst. Tech.
    3 Univ. Cambridge
    4 Columbia Univ.
    4 Univ. Chicago
    6 Princeton Univ.
    7 Univ. California, Berkeley
    8 Leland Stanford Jr. Univ.
    9 Московский гос. унив. М. В. Ломоносова
    9 California Inst. Tech.
    11 Univ. Paris
    12 Cornell Univ.
    13 Yale Univ.
    14 Univ. Oxford
    15 École norm. sup.
    15 Univ. London
    17 Univ. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    18 Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor
    19 Georg-August-Univ. Göttingen
    20 Eidgenössische Tech. Hoch. Zürich
    20 Univ. California, Los Angeles
    22 Univ. Wisconsin-Madison
    22 Johns Hopkins Univ.
    24 Univ. Minnesota
    24 Univ. California, San Diego
    26 Univ. Pennsylvania
    26 New York Univ.
    26 Московский Физико-Техн. инст.
    29 東京大学 Tokyo Univ.
    30 Univ. Washington
    31 Санкт-Петербургский гос. унив.
    31 Tech. Univ. München
    33 Univ. Toronto
    33 City Col. of New York (City Univ. New York)
    33 Carnegie Mellon Univ.
    36 Ludwig-Maximilian-Univ. München
    36 Humboldt-Univ. Berlin
    36 京都大学 Kyoto Univ.
    36 Univ. Hamburg
    40 Rockefeller Univ.
    41 Univ. Leiden
    41 Univ. Strasbourg
    41 Duke Univ.
    44 Univ. Roma “La Sapienza”
    44 Københavns Univ.
    44 École Polytechnique
    44 Uniw. Warszawski
    44 Case Western Reserve Univ.
    44 Univ. Colorado
    44 Univ. Texas at Austin
    44 Санкт-Петербургский гос. ПолиТехн. унив.
    52 Rutgers, The State Univ. New Jersey
    52 Univ.eSão Paulo
    52 McGill Univ.
    52 Victoria Univ. Manchester
    52 Vanderbilt Univ.
    52 Univ. Bristol
    52 Purdue Univ.
    52 Illinois Inst. Tech.
    60 Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg
    60 Tech. Univ. Berlin
    60 Univ. Sheffield
    60 Imperial Col., London
    60 Washington Univ. in St. Louis
    60 Univ. California, San Francisco
    60 Ohio State Univ.
    60 Univ. Amsterdam
    60 Univ. British Columbia
    60 Новосибирский гос. унив.
    70 Univ. Wien
    70 Univ. Leipzig
    70 Eberhard Karls Univ. Tübingen
    70 Univ. Edinburgh
    70 Eötvös Loránd Tudományegyetem
    70 Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Univ. Bonn
    70 George Washington Univ.
    70 Univ. Virginia
    70 Univ. LibreBruxelles
    70 Univ. Florida
    70 Univ. Calcutta (কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়)
    70 Univ. Maryland, Col. Park
    70 Уральский гос. унив.
    70 Московский авиационный инст.
    70 Московский Инженерно-Физический инст.
    70 Australian natl. Univ.
    70 State Univ. New York Stony Brook
    87 Univ. St Andrews
    87 Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg
    87 Uppsala Univ.
    87 Univ. Genève
    87 Brown Univ.
    87 Karolinska inst.
    87 Amherst Col.
    87 Indiana Univ.
    87 Univ. Cape Town
    87 Московский гос. Техн. унив. им. Н. Э. Бауманаа
    87 Univ. Rochester
    87 Univ. Melbourne
    87 Pennsylvania State Univ.
    87 Stockholms Univ.
    87 Univ. Liverpool
    87 The Univ. Auckland
    87 Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Univ. Frankfurt am Main
    87 Univ. Texas Southwestern Med. Ctr. Dallas
    There are 105 institutions in total.

    The University of Paris leads the others by a comfortable margin. This is primarily a result of its long history. It is known that Oxford essentially resulted from the split of Paris, and Cambridge, from Oxford. Harvard was derived from Cambridge since Mr. J. Harvard was an alumnus of Cambridge. In this sense, the University of Paris is the starting point of the modern university. The best graduates of Oxford and Cambridge went to Paris to complete their study. Pope Gregory IX praised the university as “the mother of the sciences” and “city of letters”. Its dominance was not challenged until the Italian Renaissance, and it remained among the top three before the rise of the American universities in the 20th century.
    It is interesting to note that the top two universities often belong to the same country staring from the 17th century, and could be associated with historical events. When Oxford and Cambridge toped the academic world, there was a revolution on Britain. When École Polytechnique and Paris ranked on the top, it was the time of French Revolution. The European revolution of 1848 swept through Germany, when Berlin and Göttingen bested the world. In the 20th century, Harvard and MIT were sitting on the crown, presumably as the result of the rise of the new superpower. What we have described here is a historical phenomenon, and not of minor significance. Although it is hard to prove the cause-and-effect relation, it is unlikely that the observation was merely a coincidence. It is conceivable that the European revolutions apparently had a liberating effect on academic research in that country concerned. It has little to do with the economic development since the Spanish and the Dutch empires did not achieve much in this aspect, nether did the British Empire of the 19th century when Cambridge merely grasped the 4th place.
    In contrast, the independence movement in the third world has little positive impact on the academic research. As matter of fact, it often has a negative impact. For example, the University of Calcutta was the best university outside Europe and USA in the 19th century, but it started to decline after the Indian Independence. Similar situation happened to the other South Asian universities. Also the Chinese universities in the mainland declined after Mao’s Revolution. Hence, the academic performance of the universities in a given country could serve as a useful indicator for the progressiveness of the social change.


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    II. Nationalities of the Selected Scholars

    These scholars come from 52 countries (by birth) listed below.

    No. Counrty %
    1 USA 16.59
    2 Germany 13.89
    3 France 13.41
    4 Russia/CCCP 11.61
    5 UK 11.06
    6 Italy 6.08
    7 Netherlands 2.63
    8 India 2.35
    9 China 2.00
    10 Austria 1.94
    11 Japan 1.87
    12 Switzerland 1.80
    13 Poland 1.38
    14 Canada 1.24
    14 Hungary 1.24
    16 Sweden 1.11
    17 Spain 1.04
    18 Denmark 0.90
    19 Belgium 0.83
    20 Australia 0.69
    21 Iran 0.62
    22 Portugal 0.55
    23 Brazil 0.48
    23 Czech 0.48
    23 Ireland 0.48
    26 Norway 0.41
    27 Argentina 0.28
    27 Finland 0.28
    27 South Africa 0.28
    30 Croatia 0.21
    30 New Zealand 0.21
    30 Pakistan 0.21
    30 Turkey 0.21
    34 Bulgaria 0.14
    34 Iraq 0.14
    34 Lithuania 0.14
    34 Philippines 0.14
    34 Romania 0.14
    39 Algeria 0.07
    39 Azerbaijan 0.07
    39 Bosnia 0.07
    39 Egypt 0.07
    39 Greece 0.07
    39 Kenya 0.07
    39 Mexico 0.07
    39 Morocco 0.07
    39 Palestine 0.07
    39 Serbia 0.07
    39 Syria 0.07
    39 Tunisia 0.07
    39 Uzbekistan 0.07
    39 Venezuela 0.07

    The distributions of the scholars from the top-six ranking countries and the total number are shown in the figure. The total curve display a clear downward trend in the 14th century, obviously related to the “Black-Death”. It was followed by a minor peak in Italy corresponding to the Renaissance. Afterwards, there was a major peak in France, corresponding to the French Revolution, followed by a sharp peak in Germany corresponding to the European Revolution and a peak in Russia corresponding to the Russian Revolutions. The rise of the US was characterised by a much greater scale and was probably a different kind of matter, possibly a result of the emergence of the superpower in the 20th century.

    Taken together, the evolution of the academic ranking of the nations and of the universities suggest that the western history in the last one thousand years could be divided into four periods: (1) the High Middle Age centred in Paris; (2) the Renaissance centred in Italy; (3) the European Revolutions spreading from the Britains through France and Germany and eventually ended in Russia; (4) overlapping the Russian Revolutions was the rise of the superpower in North America as the beginning of capitalist globalisation. Russia was never a superpower judging either from its academic performance or from its GDP.

    III. Ranking by Research Areas

    A. Physical Sciences
    1 Paris
    1 Cambridge
    3 Göttingen
    4 Chicago
    5 Princeton
    6 Berlin
    7 Mosccow
    8 Harvard
    9 EP Paris
    10 MIT
    11 UC Berkeley
    12 ETH Zurich
    13 St. Petersburg
    13 ENS Paris
    15 Columbia

    B. Engineering
    1 MIT
    2 Stanford
    3 Harvard
    4 Moscow Tech. U.
    4 Cal. Tech.
    6 Cambridge
    6 Columbia
    6 ETH Zurich
    6 Moscow Phys.-Tech. Inst.
    10 Michigan
    10 UC Berkeley
    10 St. Pertersburg Tech. U.
    10 Moscow Aviation Inst.

    C. Biology
    1 Cambridge
    2 Standford
    3 Oxford
    3 Berkeley
    3 Cal. Tech.
    6 Harvard
    6 London
    6 MIT
    6 Wisconsin
    6 Illinois
    11 Columbia
    11 Rockefeller

    D. Medicine
    1 Cambridge
    1 Harvard
    3 Columbia
    3 London
    5 Johns Hopkins
    6 Paris
    6 Berlin
    8 Padova
    8 Cornell
    8 U. Washington
    8 Rockefeller
    12 Bologna
    12 Washington U. St. Louis
    12 UCSF

    E. Arts
    1 Paris
    2 Oxford
    3 Berlin
    4 London
    6 Columbia
    7 Harvard
    8 Bologna
    10 Yale
    10 Göttingen
    12 Wien

    Discussion

    Ranking of higher education institutions has always been a controversial affair, not least because the subject matter is often a matter of opinion depending on the philosophy of science and education. For some people, education is primarily a mean of investment, and comparison of the graduate’s income has been going on for many years in the US. The ENS ranking brought this matter to everyone’s attention as it is consistently dominated by the Japanese universities, presumably due to the high living cost and thus higher nominal income in Japan, which has nothing to do with the real income or the quality of the education system.
    As far as the academic performance is concerned, it is difficult, to say the least, to formulate a universally accepted criteria and a method of quantification, which could explain why so many rankings have been based on subjective scoring. If subjective method is still somewhat meaningful within a country, it breaks down rapidly once applied in an international setting as most people would like to rank those in their country on the top, followed by those in country of the same language. As a result, international ranking of this nature often becomes mixed with unhealthy doses of nationalism, as the THES-QS results have demonstrated. Such results are merely generated to please the reader and its value rests primarily on political propaganda and reinforcement of cultural identity.
    SJU made an attempt in quantifying the research output in an objective manner, but the outcome has been problematic, as already mentioned in the beginning of this article. In essence, SCI and the like were not designed to be used for this purpose. There is no way you could compare the pea paper of Mendel that laid the foundation of modern genetics with papers on those run-of-the-mill journals. Some scientists could publish as many as a thousand papers and yet achieve mo more than the single paper of Mendel. Hence, we are facing the possibility of huge distortion if we rely on paper counting to measure academic performance. Here, we are not even considering some papers involving unethical misconducts, which is not so rare in certain parts of the world.
    To overcome this problem, counting the outstanding scholars is a viable alternative, as it reduces the workload and allows a more careful consideration of the achievement on individual basis regarding originality, difficulty, influence, and pragmatic values. Any error that is bound to happen will only be in the scale of one instead of several hundred folds as it happens in counting papers. In addition, errors in scholar selection are generally random and could cancel out in larger samples whereas errors in paper counting are often systematic in nature and tend to accumulate in larger samples. The judgments by experts in history of science and in individual fields as shown by the honours and awards are given careful consideration, although this does not prevent necessary correction of the past mistakes in judgment. For example, Nobel prize were never given to Lise Meitner, Дми́трий Менделе́ев, Rosalind Franklin, Лев Толсто́й, Henrik Ibsen and Émile Zola, just to name a few. The ranking here is not award-based, but it takes such element into consideration to maximize the objectivity of the process and the result.
    Certain reader has raised the question about relationship between the proof of the education and the achievement of the scholars. This is a delicate issue, and it is considered a job of the historians and education researchers. It is obviously beyond the scale of this study.
    Overall speaking, the most significant contribution of this study is not about the method of scoring but the fact that it takes the entire history into account. By observing the dynamic change of the individual schools and the entire nation over time, it has been possible to reveal certain general trends of the academic performance of the schools and nations in relation to critical historical development. This achievement by itself demonstrates the validity of the methodology and provides an important point of departure for anyone interested in such investigations.


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    My school came in 75th so I disapprove.

    The Times Education Supplement put us 19th *storms off*
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    The Times Education Supplement put us 19th
    ===
    Is that a global ranking?
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    Forum Cosmic Wizard i_feel_tiredsleepy's Avatar
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    We were actually 20th this year T_T

    http://www.timeshighereducation.co.u...=1&navcode=137
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  7. #6  
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    I already commented on the times ranking in the beginning, no need to say any more except that US News & World Reports also display identical table on its site. I wonder what kind of role the US magazine played in the ranking.
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  8. #7  
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    Quote Originally Posted by line
    I already commented on the times ranking in the beginning, no need to say any more except that US News & World Reports also display identical table on its site. I wonder what kind of role the US magazine played in the ranking.
    Since the US News and World Reports is saying it's reporting the rankings of the THES, I think none. Countless papers reprint these results after they first appear in THES.
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    The adjustment is "ranking by Research Area" is caused by moving computer science into the engineering section instead of the physical science section as Americans usually do. I think the result is more logical now.
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  10. #9  
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    I wonder how many points I need to accumulate to be able to upload graphics, which is needed for this post.
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  11. #10  
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    In view of the previous post on university ranking, there has been some debate about how my list compare to the others. Here I am presenting a list of the top 20 schools below for those interested in such issues. All the data are from 2008 although the Wuhan Univ. ranking is from 2007. Of course, I use the 20th century ranking in my original article instead of the millennium list, which is a totally different kind of beast. The 20th century list is the closest to a current ranking I have got. It seems my ranking is fairly consistent with the “average list”, so to speak. The French and the Spanish rankings are the lists that are really out of line with the rest. But they are measuring different things. In theory, you could do statistical treatment to demonstrate different lists, but the lack of certain schools from certain list makes it tricky, so I decided not to bother.

    Lin
    20th Century
    1 Harvard
    2 MIT
    3 Cambridge
    4 Chicago
    5 Columbia
    6 Princeton
    7 Berkeley
    8 Standford
    9 Moscow
    10 Paris
    10 Caltech
    12 Cornell
    13 Yale
    14 Oxford
    14 London
    16 ÉNS
    17 Michigan
    18 Illinois
    19 Göttingen
    19 UCLA

    China
    Shanghai ARWU
    1 Harvard
    2 Stanford
    3 Berkeley
    4 Cambridge
    5 MIT
    6 Caltech
    7 Columbia
    8 Princeton
    9 Chicago
    10 Oxford
    11 Yale
    12 Cornell
    13 UCLA
    14 UCSD
    15 U Penn
    16 U Washington
    17 Wisconsin
    18 UCSF
    19 Tokyo
    20 Johns Hopkins

    China
    Wuhan Univ.
    1 Harvard
    2 U Texas Austin
    3 U Washington
    4 Stanford
    5 Johns Hopkins
    6 Berkeley
    7 UCLA
    8 Tokyo
    9 Michigan
    10 MIT
    11 Toronto
    12 Wisconsin
    13 Columbia
    14 UCSD
    15 U Penn
    16 Illinois
    17 Cambridge
    18 Minnesota
    19 Yale
    20 Cornell

    UK
    Times
    1 Harvard
    2 Yale
    3 Cambridge
    4 Oxford
    5 Caltech
    6 ICL
    7 UCL
    8 Chicago
    9 MIT
    10 Columbia
    11 U Penn
    12 Princeton
    13 Johns Hopkins
    13 Duke
    15 Cornell
    16 ANU
    17 Stanford
    18 Michigan
    19 Tokyo
    20 McGill

    USA
    Newsweek
    1 Harvard
    2 Stanford
    3 Yale
    4 Caltech
    5 Berkeley
    6 Cambridge
    7 MIT
    8 Oxford
    9 UCSF
    10 Columbia
    11 Michigan
    12 UCLA
    13 U Penn
    14 Duke
    15 Princeton
    16 Tokyo
    17 ICL
    18 Toronto
    19 Cornell
    20 Chicago

    France
    MINES ParisTech
    1 Tokyo
    2 Harvard
    3 Stanford
    4 Keio
    5 U Penn
    6 Waseda
    7 HEC
    8 Kyoto
    8 Oxford
    10 ENA
    11 Inst. Study Politics, Paris
    12 Yale
    13 MIT
    13 Osaka
    15 Ecole Polytechnique
    16 Soeul
    17 Muenster
    18 Fordam
    18 Penn State U
    20 Duke

    Spain
    Cybermetrics Lab
    1 MIT
    2 Stanford
    3 Harvard
    4 Penn State U
    5 Berkeley
    6 Michigan
    7 Wisconsin
    8 Minnesota
    9 Ilinois
    10 Cornell
    11 UT Austin
    12 U Washington
    13 U Penn
    14 Columbia
    15 Chicago
    16 Texas A&M
    17 UCLA
    18 Arizona
    19 Maryland
    20 Purdue

    Taiwan
    HEE
    1 Harvard
    2 Johns Hopkins
    3 Stanford
    4 U Washington
    5 UCLA
    6 Berkeley
    7 Michigan
    8 MIT
    9 UCSF
    10 UCSD
    11 U Penn
    12 Tokyo
    13 Columbia
    14 Toronto
    15 Yale
    16 Cambridge
    17 Duke
    18 Cornell
    19 Oxford
    20 UCL
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    To compare various ranking results as posted above, a power regression was conducted using the data from each ranking against the sum of Fields Prizes and Nobel Prizes. The results of R2 are listed below (all being highly significant except for the last two showing no significance):

    Shanghai: ARWU 0.85
    Lin: 20th century 0.70
    UK: Times 0.41
    US: Newsweek 0.39
    Spain: Cybermetrics 0.38
    France: ParisTech 0.15
    Taiwan: HEE 0.076

    How much correlation is most desirable is contestable. Too much of it is not desirable since it would mean nothing more than another way of calculating the prizes. On the other hand, a complete lack of such correlation as in the French and the Taiwanese rankings suggests serious faults in the methodology.


    In a second round of similar test involving more than 50 schools, the Shanghai ranking and Lin's 20th century ranking were compared, and the results are listed below:

    Lin: 20th century 0.58
    Shanghai: ARWU 0.46

    Therefore, Lin's method has held out better when the range extends to wards the lower end of the list compared to the method of the Shanghai ARWU by showing a higher consistency.
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  13. #12 best university in history is oxfort unvirsity 
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    :-D
    Hello friends i just inform you that which is best university if you are Looking for the 'best university in the world' for you and your relatives than in anything other than the most specialized research areas is futile. Be content to find a few really good universities for a subject.

    Oxford has a good reputation for many areas of History at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and is one of its strongest subjects in the Humanities.

    And one special instruction for you If you go to the Times website they have a section entitled 'Good University Guide' which gives you the best universities for each subject and is updated yearly.
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  14. #13 Re: best university in history is oxfort unvirsity 
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    Quote Originally Posted by rockymeet
    :-D
    Hello friends i just inform you that which is best university if you are Looking for the 'best university in the world' for you and your relatives than in anything other than the most specialized research areas is futile. Be content to find a few really good universities for a subject.

    Oxford has a good reputation for many areas of History at both undergraduate and postgraduate level and is one of its strongest subjects in the Humanities.

    And one special instruction for you If you go to the Times website they have a section entitled 'Good University Guide' which gives you the best universities for each subject and is updated yearly.
    I don't think you have read or understood this paper before talking off your head.
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  15. #14  
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    So anyone tell me how the awkward russian words read???
    And one thing more to point for a long history China has leading the technology , the reason is the lack of modern university system. So the data back to 17-18th century is more or less inaccurate.
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  16. #15  
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    lol i don't care hillsdale college is the best!

    I think there probably the only college that advertises on national TV though.
    http://whatreallyhappened.com/WRHART...alwarming.html
    Global warming is an inconvenient lie!

    Student
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  17. #16  
    Forum Freshman Spaceman's Avatar
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    I got only one

    20th Century
    University of San Diego (UCSD) It's Biology

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  18. #17  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Jusmao
    So anyone tell me how the awkward russian words read???
    And one thing more to point for a long history China has leading the technology , the reason is the lack of modern university system. So the data back to 17-18th century is more or less inaccurate.
    Do you know what you are talking about?
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  19. #18  
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    Paris I (Sorbonne) remains the world's most prestigious university because of its history. But I can't recall any modern scholar who did anything there.

    Ponts et Chaussées is the best in Civil Engineering.
    Ecole des Mines in mine engineering.
    Sciences Po in lying (political career).

    Can't think of others where we best everybody else.
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