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Thread: Volcanoes

  1. #1 Volcanoes 
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    Lava lake bubbles up on Kilauea volcano in Hawaii - CBS News




    Kilaueea is spouting!


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    Large round bubbles of lava started splattering on the surface of a lava lake on the Hawaiian island of Kilauea this week.

    Located in the Overlook crater, within the Halemaʻumaʻu crater at the summit of the Kilauea volcano, the lava lake is known to bubble and expand regularly. It is usually at least 100 feet below the floor of the Halemaʻumaʻu crater.

    Early on Thursday, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reported that the lava has risen about 32 feet.

    The Kilauea summit last erupted nearly five years ago. According to the USGS, the vent has been active since that March 19, 2008 eruption.

    In the years since, the lake has bubbled often, overflowing the inner ledge in October 2012 and again in January 2013.


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    E hoa ma, ina te ora o te tangata.

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    It is by will alone I set my mind in motion.
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  7. #6  
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    Hot spots, like under kilauea.
    There are about 29 hotspots on earth, and all but 4 or 5 are located under oceans.
    So my question:
    Why?
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  8. #7  
    Forum Radioactive Isotope cosmictraveler's Avatar
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    There are about 29 hotspots on earth, and all but 4 or 5 are located under oceans.
    So my question:
    Why?
    Perhaps because they are closer to the area where the magma comes from.

    Magma, as liquid, preferentially forms in high temperature, low pressure environments within several kilometers of the Earth's surface
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    babe likes this.
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    One of the first things they teach you in Geology 101 is to make your keys secure before approaching a lava flow. You know it makes sense.

    Moderator Note: I've changed the thread title from the incorrect Volcano's to the correct Volcanoes. It was bugging me. (Unless you meant to call it Volcano's Increased Activity)
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  11. #10  
    exchemist
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    Quote Originally Posted by cosmictraveler View Post
    There are about 29 hotspots on earth, and all but 4 or 5 are located under oceans.
    So my question:
    Why?
    Perhaps because they are closer to the area where the magma comes from.

    Magma, as liquid, preferentially forms in high temperature, low pressure environments within several kilometers of the Earth's surface
    If you mean it is harder for a hot spot to burn through the extra thickness of continental crust than to burn through the ocean floor, then I think I'd agree.

    But since 2/3 of the Earth's surface is ocean, one would expect only 10 out of 30 to be under continents anyway.
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    Sorry, guys. I just commissioned a new set of armor from Hephaistus.
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    Forum Radioactive Isotope cosmictraveler's Avatar
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    Two thirds of the earth Is covered with water so It would seem to make sense that more would be under the water than on the land.
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    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's status webpage on Kilauea —

    Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases


    Very nicely done as the HVO provides a brief glossary of terms at the end of each daily update.

    Swiss-born seismologist Bernard Chouet interviewed on NOVA in its Volcanoes Talking segment and here's a brief description of LP (Long-Period) events.

    Epiphanies fascinate me — scientific or otherwise — and I can just imagine these scientists suddenly realizing that the mysterious LP events under volcanos are as simple as "water hammer" in household water pipes. Water hammer is the "banging" sound that water pipes produce when a faucet is suddenly turned off. The same happens when lava surging up through lava tubes encounter a capped volcano. Let me out!!

    A video of Kilauea's activity in 2012.

    (How can we embed videos on this forum?)
    Last edited by jrmonroe; January 24th, 2014 at 11:51 PM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by pyoko View Post
    The gods are angry.

    Madame Pele has a temper!
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    Theatre Whore babe's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by MacGyver1968 View Post
    Let's go swimming!
    Did you ever hear of Pompeii? *L*
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    Quote Originally Posted by John Galt View Post
    One of the first things they teach you in Geology 101 is to make your keys secure before approaching a lava flow. You know it makes sense.

    Moderator Note: I've changed the thread title from the incorrect Volcano's to the correct Volcanoes. It was bugging me. (Unless you meant to call it Volcano's Increased Activity)
    No worries, it was late an my error.

    Mahalo Sir Galt.
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  18. #17  
    Theatre Whore babe's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's status webpage on Kilauea —

    Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases


    Very nicely done as the HVO provides a brief glossary of terms at the end of each daily update.

    Swiss-born seismologist Bernard Chouet interviewed on NOVA in its Volcanoes Talking segment and here's a brief description of LP (Long-Period) events.

    Epiphanies fascinate me — scientific or otherwise — and I can just imagine these scientists suddenly realizing that the mysterious LP events under volcanos are as simple as "water hammer" in household water pipes. Water hammer is the "banging" sound that water pipes produce when a faucet is suddenly turned off. The same happens when lava surging up through lava tubes encounter a capped volcano. Let me out!!

    A video of Kilauea's activity in 2012.

    (How can we embed videos on this forum?)
    I read it pretty much every couple of days.

    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
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  19. #18  
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?
    Grief is the price we pay for love. (CM Parkes) Our postillion has been struck by lightning. (Unknown) War is always the choice of the chosen who will not have to fight. (Bono) The years tell much what the days never knew. (RW Emerson) Reality is not always probable, or likely. (JL Borges)
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  20. #19  
    Theatre Whore babe's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?

    This is more informative for your question.

    Dormant and Active Volcanoes in Hawaii

    We have tsunami evacuation routes. Have lived through three of those, two tiny ones and the one in March 2012 that was alarming. It is amazing to see what the ocean is capable of, and agagain, have seen a little of what the volcanoes are about.

    I have never heard of a volcano evacuation route.

    Volcanoes are not predictable in general. When you look at the flows at the Volcano National Park, on one sign it says 1952, and 20 feet away it is 1987. It is amazing and seeing whether or not it is a'a or pahoehoe is also fascinating.
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  21. #20  
    exchemist
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?
    My understanding is that the lava in Hawaii is basic, basaltic and thus very fluid. This has the advantage that gas can easily bubble out of the magma as it rises, so it is rare to have explosive eruptions on the island, which are the ones giving rise to extreme danger (pyroclastic flows and paroxysmal eruptions). The lava flows are destructive of what lies in their paths of course, but since the slopes of the volcanoes are shallow (again due to the fluidity of the lava) you can see them coming and get out of the way without great difficulty.

    When I visited in the late 80s, the eruptive centre was at a place called Pu'u Oo (if I've spelt it right after this lapse of time), on the fault that lies NW - SE between Mauna Loa and Kilauea. I think more or less anywhere along that fault can go off, and in time we can expect more activity to shift to the SE, since the Pacific Plate is carrying the island NW relative to the location of the hot spot that is responsible.
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  22. #21  
    Forum Professor jrmonroe's Avatar
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    Exchemist, a very nice explanation, thanks.

    What determines the composition of the lava? Is it from the original source far underneath the plates, or is it material from the mantle that the lava burns through, or is it because it's under the ocean? Or ... ?
    Grief is the price we pay for love. (CM Parkes) Our postillion has been struck by lightning. (Unknown) War is always the choice of the chosen who will not have to fight. (Bono) The years tell much what the days never knew. (RW Emerson) Reality is not always probable, or likely. (JL Borges)
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  23. #22  
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Exchemist, a very nice explanation, thanks.

    What determines the composition of the lava? Is it from the original source far underneath the plates, or is it material from the mantle that the lava burns through, or is it because it's under the ocean? Or ... ?
    I think we really need John Galt on the case here, but my imperfect understanding is that the material at the top of the mantle and/or bottom of the oceanic crust starts to melt in the so-called zone of partial melting that arises due to the combination of relative low pressure (because not too much overlying rock) and temperature (due to the hot spot), and the composition of the magma reflects those rocks.

    Whereas, with a subduction zone volcano, the melting occurs due to the descent, on the subducting slab, of continental erosion deposits (which are more acid) and entrained water that alters the minerals, creating lower melting point minerals that rise, like lava lamp - type blobs (diapirs) of semi-molten material, which eventually break through to the surface. The composition of these volcanoes is andesitic or rhyolitic, with more viscous magma and more explosive types of eruption, typical of Indonesia (Krakatoa) or Mt St Helens, or Mont Pelee.

    But if JohnG sees this I'm sure he can give a more correct explanation.
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  24. #23  
    AI's Have More Fun Bad Robot's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's status webpage on Kilauea

    Recent Kilauea Status Reports, Updates, and Information Releases


    Very nicely done as the HVO provides a brief glossary of terms at the end of each daily update.

    Swiss-born seismologist Bernard Chouet interviewed on NOVA in its Volcanoes Talking segment and here's a brief description of LP (Long-Period) events.

    Epiphanies fascinate me scientific or otherwise and I can just imagine these scientists suddenly realizing that the mysterious LP events under volcanos are as simple as "water hammer" in household water pipes. Water hammer is the "banging" sound that water pipes produce when a faucet is suddenly turned off. The same happens when lava surging up through lava tubes encounter a capped volcano. Let me out!!

    A video of Kilauea's activity in 2012.

    (How can we embed videos on this forum?)
    Copy the link then select the video strip button at the top of the posting box and paste in the pop up, then enter it.

    Reply With Quote  
     

  25. #24  
    Theatre Whore babe's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by exchemist View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?
    My understanding is that the lava in Hawaii is basic, basaltic and thus very fluid. This has the advantage that gas can easily bubble out of the magma as it rises, so it is rare to have explosive eruptions on the island, which are the ones giving rise to extreme danger (pyroclastic flows and paroxysmal eruptions). The lava flows are destructive of what lies in their paths of course, but since the slopes of the volcanoes are shallow (again due to the fluidity of the lava) you can see them coming and get out of the way without great difficulty.

    When I visited in the late 80s, the eruptive centre was at a place called Pu'u Oo (if I've spelt it right after this lapse of time), on the fault that lies NW - SE between Mauna Loa and Kilauea. I think more or less anywhere along that fault can go off, and in time we can expect more activity to shift to the SE, since the Pacific Plate is carrying the island NW relative to the location of the hot spot that is responsible.
    Actually a'a is course and rocky. Pahoehoe is much more streamlined. I have included a site for you to see the difference.

    Lava Flows | earthstonestation

    It will destroy ANYTHING in it's path, for sure.

    You are correct on Puu O'o Pu

    I am not familiar with the lava is based on in content but I do thank you for the information.
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  26. #25  
    exchemist
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by exchemist View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?
    My understanding is that the lava in Hawaii is basic, basaltic and thus very fluid. This has the advantage that gas can easily bubble out of the magma as it rises, so it is rare to have explosive eruptions on the island, which are the ones giving rise to extreme danger (pyroclastic flows and paroxysmal eruptions). The lava flows are destructive of what lies in their paths of course, but since the slopes of the volcanoes are shallow (again due to the fluidity of the lava) you can see them coming and get out of the way without great difficulty.

    When I visited in the late 80s, the eruptive centre was at a place called Pu'u Oo (if I've spelt it right after this lapse of time), on the fault that lies NW - SE between Mauna Loa and Kilauea. I think more or less anywhere along that fault can go off, and in time we can expect more activity to shift to the SE, since the Pacific Plate is carrying the island NW relative to the location of the hot spot that is responsible.
    Actually a'a is course and rocky. Pahoehoe is much more streamlined. I have included a site for you to see the difference.

    Lava Flows | earthstonestation

    It will destroy ANYTHING in it's path, for sure.

    You are correct on Puu O'o Pu

    I am not familiar with the lava is based on in content but I do thank you for the information.
    Yes, when it flows it can take these 2 forms, coarse and clinkery or smooth and ropy. But both these forms come from basaltic lave that is fluid by the standards of an andesite or even more so a rhyolite volcano.
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  27. #26  
    Theatre Whore babe's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by exchemist View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by exchemist View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The volcano (s) very much affect things such as air quality, earthquakes, etc. here. If you ever go to Volcano, it is pretty fascinating and worth taking an entire day to see it.
    Is Kilauea the "main event" for Hawaii, or are there other major volcanoes/craters that worry scientists/citizens?
    I see a chain of craters trailing off to the east toward Kapoho. Are they ever active?
    Do scientists have confidence about how much eruption and lava will occur and where the lava will flow from Kilauea?
    For example, are they confident that a small amount of lava will flow south from Kilauea toward the ocean, or do they have concerns about a *big* eruption?
    So, does Hawaii have comprehensive evacuation plans for the whole island or just its southeast coast?
    My understanding is that the lava in Hawaii is basic, basaltic and thus very fluid. This has the advantage that gas can easily bubble out of the magma as it rises, so it is rare to have explosive eruptions on the island, which are the ones giving rise to extreme danger (pyroclastic flows and paroxysmal eruptions). The lava flows are destructive of what lies in their paths of course, but since the slopes of the volcanoes are shallow (again due to the fluidity of the lava) you can see them coming and get out of the way without great difficulty.

    When I visited in the late 80s, the eruptive centre was at a place called Pu'u Oo (if I've spelt it right after this lapse of time), on the fault that lies NW - SE between Mauna Loa and Kilauea. I think more or less anywhere along that fault can go off, and in time we can expect more activity to shift to the SE, since the Pacific Plate is carrying the island NW relative to the location of the hot spot that is responsible.
    Actually a'a is course and rocky. Pahoehoe is much more streamlined. I have included a site for you to see the difference.

    Lava Flows | earthstonestation

    It will destroy ANYTHING in it's path, for sure.

    You are correct on Puu O'o Pu

    I am not familiar with the lava is based on in content but I do thank you for the information.
    Yes, when it flows it can take these 2 forms, coarse and clinkery or smooth and ropy. But both these forms come from basaltic lave that is fluid by the standards of an andesite or even more so a rhyolite volcano.

    Mahalo
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