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Thread: Converting German emission standards to U.S.

  1. #1 Converting German emission standards to U.S. 
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    Mar 2007
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    1
    I have a list of Germany's emission standards for waste incineration. My understanding is that these standards are far more strict than California's standards.

    However, because California expresses its requirements in a different manner than the Germans do, I'm really not sure how to make heads or tails of it. Can anyone help a mathmatically-challenged user out?

    Here are the German standards (The german list is very extensive, so I've only posted a portion of them):

    1) Incineration plants shall be built and operated in such a way that no daily mean value exceeds the following emission limit values:

    a) Total dust 10 mg/m続
    b) Organic compounds, expressed as total organic carbon, 10 mg/m続
    c) Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds, expressed as hydrogen chloride, 10 mg/m続
    d) Gaseous inorganic fluorine compounds, expressed as hydrogen fluoride, 1 mg/m続
    e) Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide, expressed as
    sulphur dioxide, 50 mg/m続
    f) Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, expressed as
    nitrogen dioxide, 200 mg/m続
    g) Mercury and its compounds, expressed as mercury, 0.03 mg/m3
    h) Carbon monoxide 50 mg/m続

    2) no half-hour mean value exceeds the following emission limit values:

    a) Total dust 30 mg/m続
    b) Organic compounds, expressed as total organic carbon, 20 mg/m続
    c) Gaseous inorganic chlorine compounds, expressed as hydrogen chloride, 60 mg/m続
    d) Gaseous inorganic fluorine compounds, expressed as hydrogen fluoride, 4 mg/m続
    e) Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide, expressed as sulphur dioxide, 200 mg/m続
    f) Nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, expressed as nitrogen dioxide, 400 mg/m続
    g) Mercury and its compounds, expressed as mercury, 0.05 mg/m続
    h) Carbon monoxide 100 mg/m続

    Here are the California stanards:

    a) Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX) - 205 PPMV (24-Hr Daily Arithmetic Average)
    b) Oxides of Sulfur (SOX) - 29 PPMV or 75% Wt. Reduction (24-Hr Daily Geometric Mean)
    c) Carbon Monoxide (CO) - 100 PPMV (4-Hr Arithmetic Average)
    d) Particulate Matter (PM) - 27 mg/DSCM
    f) Dioxin/Furan - 30 ng/DSCM
    g) Cadmium - 0.04 mg/DSCM
    h) Lead - 0.44 mg/DSCM
    i) Mercury - 0.080 mg/DSCM or 85% Wt. Reduction
    j) Hydrogen Chloride - 29 PPMV or 95% Wt. Reduction

    The Controlled Emmissions in the Exhaust from this system shall not exceed the following limits:

    Nitrogen Oxides - 825 LB/Day
    PM10 - 123 LB/Day
    Sulfur Oxides - 100 LB/Day
    Carbon Monoxide - 300 LB/Day
    Total Hydrocarbons - 58 LB/Day


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  3. #2 Converting air pollutant cincentrations 
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    Newport Beach, California, USA
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    JoelWhy:

    Below is a writeup on converting mg/m続 to ppmv and vice versa. The conversion requires that you know the molecular weight of the pollutant, so it works for sulfur dixoxide, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, mercury, hydrogen chloride, etc. But the conversion cannot be made for pollutants like dust for which you cannot determine a molecular weight.

    As for standards like "pounds per day" (LB/day), it cannot be converted to either ppmv or mg/m続 because it is a mass amount per day, whereas
    mg/m続 and ppmv are concentrations rather than mass amounts.

    As for the California standards in dry standard cubic meters (DSCM), you would have to know what are the defining temperature and pressure for California's dry standard cubic meter. The Germans may define the cubic meters (m続) at some other temperature and pressure. In any event, the differences are most probably quite small and that means you could probably assume that California's mg/DSCM would be about the same as Germany's mg/m続 or vice versa.

    Here is my writeup:

    Various governmental agencies involved with environmental protection and with occupational safety and health have promulgated regulations limiting the allowable concentrations of gaseous pollutants in the ambient air or in emissions to the ambient air. Such regulations involve a number of different expressions of concentration. Some express the allowable concentrations as volume of a specific gaseous pollutant per million volumes of ambient air or, more simply as parts per million by volume (ppmv). Others express the allowable concentrations as mass of a specific gaseous pollutant per volume of ambient air or usually as milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m ).

    The equations for conversion between ppmv and mg/m続 depend on the temperature at which the conversion is wanted (usually about 20 to 25 属C). At an ambient air pressure of 1 atmosphere of 101.325 kiloPascal (kPa), the general conversion equation is:

    ppmv = (mg/m続) (0.08205) (T) / (M)

    and for the reverse conversion:

    (mg/m続) = (ppmv) (M) (12.187) / (T)

    where:

    ppmv = air pollutant concentration, in parts per million by volume
    mg/m続 = milligrams of air pollutant per cubic meter of air
    T = ambient air temperature, in kelvins (K) = 273.15 + 属C
    0.08205 = Universal Gas Law constant, in [atm揃L]/(mol揃K)
    M = molecular weight of the air pollutant (dimensionless)

    Notes:

    -- Pollution regulations in the United States typically reference their air pollutant limits to an ambient temperature of 20 to 25 属C as noted above. In most other nations, the reference ambient temperature for pollutant limits may be 0 属C or other values.
    -- 1 percent by volume = 10,000 ppmv
    -- atm = absolute atmosperic pressure in atmospheres
    -- mol = gram mole
    -- L = liter


    Milton Beychok
    (Visit me at www.air-dispersion.com)
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