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Thread: 'Terra Preta' soils CO2 sequestration strategy

  1. #1 'Terra Preta' soils CO2 sequestration strategy 
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    Hi All:
    I recall I first read about these soils in " Botany of Desire " or maybe "Guns, Germs, & Steel" but I did not realize their potential.

    This entire thread on 'Terra Preta' soils I feel has great possibilities to revolutionize sustainable agriculture into a major CO2 sequestration strategy.
    http://forums.hypography.com/earth-s...a-preta-9.html

    The Georgia Inst. of Technology page: http://www.energy.gatech.edu/presentations/dday.pdf

    There is a soil ecology going on in these soils that is not completely understood, and if replicated and applied at scale would have multiple benefits for farmers and environmentalist.

    As you will see the Japanese work with these soils is most impressive.

    I've sent it to the researchers at M-Roots, who make Mycorisal fungus inoculations for acceleration of the reestablishment of the symbiotic fungal / root relationship. Here's the M-Roots site: http://www.rootsinc.com/

    Erich J. Knight


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  3. #2 Terra Preta Soils 
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    Another finding that supports the need to develope these soils on a large scale:

    New Scientist News - Fertilisers give the lungs of the planet bad breath

    http://www.newscientist.com/article/...ad-breath.h tml


    Erich


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  4. #3  
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    It looks very labour intensive to create this ground, but if it triples production then it may indeed be worth it. Especially in places with high food prices but scarse space to grow it (like cities in developping countries, they often grow most of their food inside the city borders at high prices).

    Nice find!
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  5. #4 bad link 
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    Sorry for the bad link, here's a good one:

    http://www.newscientist.com/article....dId=life_rss20
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  6. #5 Terra preta 
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    Terra Preta is on the Agenda at the 18th World Crongress of Soil Science:

    The Rescue of an Old Indigenous Practice in the Tropics - Using Charcoal to Improve Soil Quality.


    http://crops.confex.com/crops/wc2006...ram/P16274.HTM
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  7. #6  
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    I heard for Terra Preta on TV ..

    I also heard that Terra Preta was widely analysed by scientists from university of Bayreuth, Germany (if i am not mistaken)

    http://www.geo.uni-bayreuth.de/bodenkunde/terra_preta/
    Want to have unlimited power? Dont stop learning and u'll have it.

    http://science.mojforum.si
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  8. #7 Bio-Fuel & Fertility 
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    Here is a great article that high lights this pyrolysis process , ( http://www.eprida.com/hydro/ ) which could use existing infrastructure to provide Charcoal sustainable Agriculture , Syn-Fuels, and a variation of this process would also work as well for H2 , Charcoal-Fertilizer, while sequestering CO2 from Coal fired plants to build soils at large scales , be sure to read the See an initial analysis. of this technology to clean up Coal fired power plants.


    Soil erosion, energy scarcity, excess greenhouse gas all answered through regenerative carbon management
    http://www.newfarm.org/columns/resea...charcoal.shtml

    Erich J. Knight
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  9. #8 INTO NATURE!! 
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    HOT DAMN!!!!!........We made it into Nature!!

    If this doesn't get Terra Preta some real traction , I don't know what will.

    News Feature
    Nature 442, 624-626(10 August 2006) | doi:10.1038/442624a; Published online 9 August 2006

    Putting the carbon back: Black is the new green
    Emma Marris1

    Emma Marris is a Washington correspondent for Nature.


    Top of pageAbstractOne way to keep carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere is to put it back in the ground. In the first of two News Features on carbon sequestration, Quirin Schiermeier asked when the world's coal-fired power plants will start storing away their carbon. In the second, Emma Marris joins the enthusiasts who think that enriching Earth's soils with charcoal can help avert global warming, reduce the need for fertilizers, and greatly increase the size of turnips.

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...l/442624a.html


    Erich J. Knight
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  10. #9 Let us get this Virtuoso Cycle Going 
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    If pre Columbian Indians could produce these soils up to 6 feet deep over 20% of the Amazon basin it seems that our energy and agricultural industries could also product them at scale.

    Harnessing the work of this vast number of microbes and fungi changes the whole equation of EROEI for food and Bio fuels. I see this as the only sustainable agricultural strategy if we no longer have cheap fossil fuels for fertilizer.

    I would like to investigate if use of an M-Roots type fungus inoculant and local compost would speed this super community of wee beasties in populating into their proper Soil horizon Carbon Condos.


    I feel Terra Preta soil technology is the greatest of Ironies since Tobacco.
    That is: an invention of pre-Columbian American culture, destroyed by western disease, may well be the savior of industrial western society. As inversely Tobacco, over time has gotten back at same society by killing more of us than the entire pre-Columbian population.

    Erich
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  11. #10 The Terra preta Prayer 
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    In another forum a poster characterized me as a chief preacher in the Terra Preta Church.

    I shall take on this mantel, and here is my first sermon:

    The Terra preta Prayer

    Our Carbon who art in heaven,
    Hallowed be thy name
    By kingdom come, thy will be done, IN the Earth to make it Heaven.
    It will give us each day our daily bread and forgive us our atmospheric trespasses
    As we forgive those who trespass against the Kyoto protocols
    And lead us not into fossil fuel temptation, but diliver us from it's evil
    low as we walk through the valley of the shadow of Global Warming,
    I will feel no evil, your Bio-fuels and fertile microbes will comfort me,
    For thine is the fungal kingdom,
    and the microbe power,
    and the Sustentation Glory,
    For ever and ever (well at least 2000 years)
    AMEN

    Erich J. Knight
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  12. #11 International Agrichar Initiative 2007 Conference 
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    Check out the International Agrichar Initiative 2007 Conference... This is basically a conference for those interested in scaling up terra preta technology...

    http://iaiconference.org/home.html

    From the site:

    April 29 - May 2, 2007
    Terrigal, New South Wales, Australia

    Join the International Agrichar Initiative for a conference on Agrichar Science, Production and Utilization, being held in coastal New South Wales, Australia. The International Agrichar Initiative is a new consortium of research and development interests devoted to the sustainability of the world’s soils, and to sustainable bioenergy production.

    What is the International Agrichar Initiative?

    The International Agrichar Initiative is an informal, newly-formed coalition of research, commercial and policy-oriented people and organizations devoted to the sustainability of the world’s soils, and to sustainable bio-energy production. Agrichar production and utilization can renew the world’s soils through the addition of organic carbon, which can help solve the pressing problem of global climate change. The Agrichar production process also converts agricultural waste into valuable bio-fuels.

    History of the Agrichar Initiative

    During the 18th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS) in July 2006 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, a group of scientists, business interests, policy experts and others met to discuss the research priorities and challenges of this important area. The result is the International Agrichar Initiative, a movement to pursue a more organized research, development and commercialization effort to further the promise of Agrichar. For information on the July 2006 meeting in Philadelphia and some current Agrichar-related projects and activities, click here.

    What is the ‘Agrichar process’?

    Agricultural feedstocks such as animal manure, rice hulls, peanut shells, corn stover or forest waste are pyrolized at low temperatures to produce a char product (“Agrichar” or “biochar”) and separate bio-energy streams, in the form of oils and/or gases. The biochar captures about 50% of the carbon in the feedstock, and can be used as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility, stability, and productivity, and to store carbon in the soils, as a means of mitigating global warming. The use of Agrichar in soils mimics the Terra Preta (“dark earth”) soils of the Amazon Basin, which have sequestered high quantities of carbon for thousands of years, and have dramatically improved soil fertility and sustainability without chemical inputs. The bio-energy produced, which accounts for the other 50% of feedstock carbon, can be used to fuel a variety of energy needs.
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  13. #12 TP Articles 
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    spoke with the author of a Terra Preta (TP) story in Solar Today, Ron Larson ,
    http://www.solartoday.org/2006/nov_d...CornerND06.pdf
    he said he spoke with a major National Geographic editor, who is preparing a big article on TP. but Doesn't know when it will be out.

    Also
    In E. O. Wilson's 'The Future of Life' he opens the book with a letter to Thoreau updating him on our current understanding of the nature of the ecology of the soils at Walden Pond.


    ' These arthropods are the giants of the microcosm (if you will allow me to continue what has turned into a short lecture). Creatures their size are present in dozens-hundreds, if an ant or termite colony is presents. But these are comparatively trivial numbers. If you focus down by a power of ten in size, enough to pick out animals barely visible to the naked eye, the numbers jump to thousands. Nematode and enchytraied pot worms, mites, springtails, pauropods, diplurans, symphylans, and tardigrades seethe in the underground. Scattered out on a white ground cloth, each crawling speck becomes a full-blown animal. Together they are far more striking and divers in appearance than snakes, mice, sparrows, and all the other vertebrates hereabouts combined. Their home is a labyrinth of miniature caves and walls of rotting vegetable debris cross-strung with ten yards of fungal threads. And they are just the surface of the fauna and flora at our feet. Keep going, keep magnifying until the eye penetrates microscopic water films on grains of sand, and there you will find ten billion bacteria in a thimbleful of soil and frass. You will have reached the energy base of the decomposer world as we understand it 150 years after you sojourn in Walden Woods.'


    Certainly there remains much work to just characterize all the estimated 1000 species of microbes found in a pinch of soil, and Wilson concludes at the end of the prolog that
    'Now it is up to us to summon a more encompassing wisdom.'

    I wonder what the soil biome was REALLY like before the cutting and charcoaling of the virgin east coast forest, my guess is that now we see a severely diminished community, and that only very recent Ag practices like no-till have helped to rebuild it.

    I found this study in this TP forum :http://forums.hypography.com/earth-s...-preta-26.html

    First-ever estimate of total bacteria on earth
    http://www.sdearthtimes.com/et0998/et0998s8.html
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  14. #13 Nature Article Pdf 
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    RE: Nature Article — the link given will not allow access without being a subscriber to Nature.

    I posted it Before Nature started requiring a subscribing membership, here is a link to the original pdf version. The pdf version is still accessible without a membership.

    http://www.nature.com/nature/journal...df/442624a.pdf
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  15. #14 Agriculture / horticultural benefits 
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    The reason TP has elicited such interest in the Agricultural / horticultural side of it's benefits is this one static:

    1 gram of charcoal cooked to 650 C has a surface area of 400 m2, now for conversion fun;

    One ton of charcoal has a surface area of 400,000 Acres!! which is equal to 625 square miles!!

    Now at a field application rate of 2 lbs/sq ft (which equals 1000 sq ft/ton) or 43 tons/acre, this yields 26,000 Sq miles of surface area per Acre. (Virginia is 39,594 sq. miles)

    What this suggest to me is a potential of sequestering virgin forest amounts of carbon just in the soil alone, without counting the forest on top.

    To take just one fairly representative example, in the classic Rothampstead experiments in England where arable land was allowed to revert to deciduous temperate woodland, soil organic carbon increased 300-400% from around 20 t/ha to 60-80 t/ha (or about 30-40 tons per acre) in less than a century (Jenkinson & Rayner 1977). The rapidity with which organic carbon can build up in soils is also indicated by examples of buried steppe soils formed during short-lived interstadial phases in Russia and Ukraine. Even though such warm, relatively moist phases usually lasted only a few hundred years, and started out from the skeletal loess desert/semi-desert soils of glacial conditions (with which they are inter-leaved), these buried steppe soils have all the rich organic content of a present-day chernozem soil that has had many thousands of years to build up its carbon (E. Zelikson, Russian Academy of Sciences, pers. comm., May 1994). Quaternary carbon storage in global ecosystems
    http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/carbon1.html
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  16. #15 news and links on Terra Preta / Biochar 
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    the current news and links on Terra Preta (TP) soils and closed-loop pyrolysis of Biomass, this integrated virtuous cycle could sequester 100s of Billions of tons of carbon to the soils.

    This technology represents the most comprehensive, low cost, and productive approach to long term stewardship and sustainability.Terra Preta Soils a process for Carbon Negative Bio fuels, massive Carbon sequestration, 1/3 Lower CH4 & N2O soil emissions, and 3X Fertility Too.


    UN Climate Change Conference: Biochar present at the Bali Conference

    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/steinerbalinov2107



    SCIAM Article May 15 07;

    http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?art...2163B9FB144E40



    After many years of reviewing solutions to anthropogenic global warming (AGW) I believe this technology can manage Carbon for the greatest collective benefit at the lowest economic price, on vast scales. It just needs to be seen by ethical globally minded companies.

    Could you please consider looking for a champion for this orphaned Terra Preta Carbon Soil Technology.

    The main hurtle now is to change the current perspective held by the IPCC that the soil carbon cycle is a wash, to one in which soil can be used as a massive and ubiquitous Carbon sink via Charcoal. Below are the first concrete steps in that direction;

    S.1884 – The Salazar Harvesting Energy Act of 2007

    A Summary of Biochar Provisions in S.1884:

    Carbon-Negative Biomass Energy and Soil Quality Initiative

    for the 2007 Farm Bill

    http://www.biochar-international.org...gislation.html
    Bolstering Biomass and Biochar development: In the 2007 Farm Bill, Senator Salazar was able to include $500 million for biomass research and development and for competitive grants to develop the technologies and processes necessary for the commercial production of biofuels and bio-based products. Biomass is an organic material, usually referring to plant matter or animal waste. Using biomass for energy can reduce waste and air pollution. Biochar is a byproduct of producing energy from biomass. As a soil treatment, it enhances the ability of soil to capture and retain carbon dioxide.


    Tackling Climate Change in the U.S.
    Potential Carbon Emissions Reductions from Biomass by 2030by Ralph P. Overend, Ph.D. and Anelia Milbrandt
    National Renewable Energy Laboratory

    http://www.ases.org/climatechange/toc/07_biomass.pdf

    The organization 25x25 released it's (first-ever, 55-page )"Action Plan" ; see; http://www.25x25.org/storage/25x25/d...B_04-19-07.pdf
    On page 29 , as one of four foci for recommended RD&D, the plan lists: "The development of biochar, animal agriculture residues and other non-fossil fuel based fertilizers, toward the end of integrating energy production with enhanced soil quality and carbon sequestration."
    and on p 32, recommended as part of an expanded database aspect of infrastructure: "Information on the application of carbon as fertilizer and existing carbon credit trading systems."

    I feel 25x25 is now the premier US advocacy organization for all forms of renewable energy, but way out in front on biomass topics.



    There are 24 billion tons of carbon controlled by man in his agriculture and waste stream, all that farm & cellulose waste which is now dumped to rot or digested or combusted and ultimately returned to the atmosphere as GHG should be returned to the Soil.

    Even with all the big corporations coming to the GHG negotiation table, like Exxon, Alcoa, .etc, we still need to keep watch as they try to influence how carbon management is legislated in the USA. Carbon must have a fair price, that fair price and the changes in the view of how the soil carbon cycle now can be used as a massive sink verses it now being viewed as a wash, will be of particular value to farmers and a global cool breath of fresh air for us all.

    If you have any other questions please feel free to call me or visit the TP web site I've been drafted to co-administer. http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/?q=node

    It has been immensely gratifying to see all the major players join the mail list , Cornell folks, T. Beer of Kings Ford Charcoal (Clorox), Novozyne the M-Roots guys(fungus), chemical engineers, Dr. Danny Day of EPRIDA , Dr. Antal of U. of H., Virginia Tech folks and probably many others who's back round I don't know have joined.



    Also Here is the Latest BIG Terra Preta Soil news;

    The Honolulu Advertiser: "The nation's leading manufacturer of charcoal has licensed a University of Hawai'i process for turning green waste into barbecue briquets."

    See: http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/antalkingsford

    ConocoPhillips Establishes $22.5 Million Pyrolysis Program at Iowa State
    http://www.conocophillips.com/newsro...04-10-2007.htm

    Glomalin, the recently discovered soil protien, may be the secret to to TP soils productivity;

    http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/pr/2003/030205.htm

    Mycorrhizae Inoculent;

    http://www.mycorrhizae.com/


    The International Biochar Initiative (IBI) conference held at Terrigal, NSW, Australia in 2007. The papers from this conference are posted at their home page; http://www.biochar-international.org/home.html




    Here is my current Terra Preta posting which condenses the most important stories and links;

    Terra Preta Soils Technology To Master the Carbon Cycle

    Man has been controlling the carbon cycle , and there for the weather, since the invention of agriculture, all be it was as unintentional, as our current airliner contrails are in affecting global dimming. This unintentional warm stability in climate has over 10,000 years, allowed us to develop to the point that now we know what we did,............ and that now......... we are over doing it.

    The prehistoric and historic records gives a logical thrust for soil carbon sequestration.
    I wonder what the soil biome carbon concentration was REALLY like before the cutting and burning of the world's forest, my guess is that now we see a severely diminished community, and that only very recent Ag practices like no-till and reforestation have started to help rebuild it. It makes implementing Terra Preta soil technology like an act of penitence, a returning of the misplaced carbon to where it belongs.

    On the Scale of CO2 remediation:

    It is my understanding that atmospheric CO2 stands at 379 PPM, to stabilize the climate we need to reduce it to 350 PPM by the removal of 230 Billion tons of carbon.

    The best estimates I've found are that the total loss of forest and soil carbon (combined
    pre-industrial and industrial) has been about 200-240 billion tons. Of
    that, the soils are estimated to account for about 1/3, and the vegetation
    the other 2/3.

    Since man controls 24 billion tons in his agriculture then it seems we have plenty to work with in sequestering our fossil fuel CO2 emissions as stable charcoal in the soil.

    As Dr. Lehmann at Cornell points out, "Closed-Loop Pyrolysis systems such as Dr. Danny Day's are the only way to make a fuel that is actually carbon negative". and that " a strategy combining biochar with biofuels could ultimately offset 9.5 billion tons of carbon per year-an amount equal to the total current fossil fuel emissions! "

    Terra Preta Soils Carbon Negative Bio fuels, massive Carbon sequestration, 1/3 Lower CH4 & N2O soil emissions, and 3X FertilityToo


    This some what orphaned new soil technology speaks to so many different interests and disciplines that it has not been embraced fully by any. I'm sure you will see both the potential of this system and the convergence needed for it's implementation.

    The integrated energy strategy offered by Charcoal based Terra Preta Soil technology may
    provide the only path to sustain our agricultural and fossil fueled power
    structure without climate degradation, other than nuclear power.

    The economics look good, and truly great if we had CO2 cap & trade or a Carbon tax in place.


    .Nature article, Aug 06: Putting the carbon back Black is the new green:
    http://bestenergies.com/downloads/naturemag_200604.pdf

    Here's the Cornell page for an over view:
    http://www.css.cornell.edu/faculty/l...ochar_home.htm

    University of Beyreuth TP Program, Germany http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org...onomy/term/118

    This Earth Science Forum thread on these soils contains further links, and has been viewed by 19,000 self-selected folks. ( I post everything I find on Amazon Dark Soils, ADS here):
    http://forums.hypography.com/earth-s...rra-preta.html


    There is an ecology going on in these soils that is not completely understood, and if replicated and applied at scale would have multiple benefits for farmers and environmentalist.

    Terra Preta creates a terrestrial carbon reef at a microscopic level. These nanoscale structures provide safe haven to the microbes and fungus that facilitate fertile soil creation, while sequestering carbon for many hundred if not thousands of years. The combination of these two forms of sequestration would also increase the growth rate and natural sequestration effort of growing plants.


    The reason TP has elicited such interest on the Agricultural/horticultural side of it's benefits is this one static:

    One gram of charcoal cooked to 650 C Has a surface area of 400 m2 (for soil microbes & fungus to live on), now for conversion fun:

    One ton of charcoal has a surface area of 400,000 Acres!! which is equal to 625 square miles!! Rockingham Co. VA. , where I live, is only 851 Sq. miles

    Now at a middle of the road application rate of 2 lbs/sq ft (which equals 1000 sqft/ton) or 43 tons/acre yields 26,000 Sq miles of surface area per Acre. VA is 39,594 Sq miles.

    What this suggest to me is a potential of sequestering virgin forest amounts of carbon just in the soil alone, without counting the forest on top.

    To take just one fairly representative example, in the classic Rothampstead experiments in England where arable land was allowed to revert to deciduous temperate woodland, soil organic carbon increased 300-400% from around 20 t/ha to 60-80 t/ha (or about 20-40 tons per acre) in less than a century (Jenkinson & Rayner 1977). The rapidity with which organic carbon can build up in soils is also indicated by examples of buried steppe soils formed during short-lived interstadial phases in Russia and Ukraine. Even though such warm, relatively moist phases usually lasted only a few hundred years, and started out from the skeletal loess desert/semi-desert soils of glacial conditions (with which they are inter-leaved), these buried steppe soils have all the rich organic content of a present-day chernozem soil that has had many thousands of years to build up its carbon (E. Zelikson, Russian Academy of Sciences, pers. comm., May 1994). http://www.esd.ornl.gov/projects/qen/carbon1.html



    All the Biochar Companies and equipment manufactures I've found:

    Carbon Diversion
    http://www.carbondiversion.com/


    Eprida: Sustainable Solutions for Global Concerns
    http://www.eprida.com/home/index.php4

    BEST Pyrolysis, Inc. | Slow Pyrolysis - Biomass - Clean Energy - Renewable Ene
    http://www.bestenergies.com/companie...pyrolysis.html


    Dynamotive Energy Systems | The Evolution of Energy
    http://www.dynamotive.com/

    Ensyn - Environmentally Friendly Energy and Chemicals
    http://www.ensyn.com/who/ensyn.htm

    Agri-Therm, developing bio oils from agricultural waste
    http://www.agri-therm.com/

    Advanced BioRefinery Inc.
    http://www.advbiorefineryinc.ca/

    Technology Review: Turning Slash into Cash
    http://www.technologyreview.com/Energy/17298/


    3R Environmental Technologies Ltd. (Edward Someus)
    WEB: http://www.terrenum.net/

    The company has Swedish origin and developing/designing medium and large scale carbonization units. The company is the licensor and technology provider to NviroClean Tech Ltd British American organization WEB: http://www.nvirocleantech.com and VERTUS Ltd.
    http://www.vertustechnologies.com


    Genesis Industries, licensee of Eprida technology, provides carbon-negative EPRIDA energy machines at the same cost as going direct to Eprida. Our technical support staff also provide information to obtain the best use of biochar produced by the machine. Recent research has shown that EPRIDA charcoal (biochar) increases plant productivity as it sequesters carbon in soil, thus reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide.

    http://www.egenindustries.com/




    .

    If pre-Columbian Kayopo Indians could produce these soils up to 6 feet deep over 15% of the Amazon basin using "Slash & CHAR" verses "Slash & Burn", it seems that our energy and agricultural industries could also product them at scale.

    Harnessing the work of this vast number of microbes and fungi changes the whole equation of energy return over energy input (EROEI) for food and Bio fuels. I see this as the only sustainable agricultural strategy if we no longer have cheap fossil fuels for fertilizer.

    We need this super community of wee beasties to work in concert with us by populating them into their proper Soil horizon Carbon Condos.


    Erich J. Knight
    Shenandoah Gardens
    1047 Dave Berry Rd.
    McGaheysville, VA. 22840
    (540) 289-9750
    shengar@aol.com
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  17. #16  
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    There you go. The result of the hoax, a false perception of reality leads to meaningless technologies at the expense of the real hazards.

    We could agree that a tiny bit of CO2 in the atmosphere, is by itself capable of only ~1 degree temperature increase by doubling. And that doubling is a hell of a job, so we need the positive feedbacks, tipping points and all that, to create apocalypse.

    So if it is proven convincingly that there is positive feedback and there is convincing evidence that tipping points bring a lot of dismay, yes then okay,

    But in one thread here we see that, in the atmosphere, negative feedback is predominant and in another thread we have seen that the infamous tipping points from the last glacial transition had a completely different meaning, so without proof and with refutation why should we accept that hell fire doom is upon us if we don't get rid of those satanic greenhouse gasses.

    On the other hand, carbon is the principial building stone of life, going around in cycles, from photo assimilation to decay, from weathering rocks to carbonates to volcanic heat, releasing the CO2 from those rocks again. But every ton of carbon sequestered is withheld for producing biomass, decreasing the dynamic equilibrium of the available carbon for life. Do we want that? Should we not be happy with the increased wordwide CO2 fertilization for all crops and be happy with the one degree or so climate amelioration? I'm sure they would be happy in Siberia and North Canada. They were 6000-9000 years ago, during the Holocene thermal optimum with temperatures about 3-5 degrees higher than today and without Greenland ice sheet melting despite three millennia of exposure.

    Oh and about peak oil and running out of fossil fuels a complete different story. Therefore it's certainly prudent to economize energy and minimize emission by the same token.
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  18. #17  
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    Biochar Updates;

    Charles Mann ("1491") in the Sept. National Geographic, has a wonderful soils article which places Terra Preta / Biochar soils center stage to solve climate change.
    I think Biochar has climbed the pinnacle, the Combined English and other language circulation of NGM is nearly nine million monthly with more than fifty million readers monthly!
    We need to encourage more coverage now, to ride Mann's coattails to public critical mass.

    Please put this (soil) bug in your colleague's ears. These issues need to gain traction among all the various disciplines who have an iron in this fire.
    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/20...soil/mann-text

    I love the "MEGO" factor theme Mann built the story around. Lord... how I KNOW that reaction.

    I like his characterization concerning the pot shards found in Terra Preta soils;

    so filled with pottery - "It was as if the river's first inhabitants had
    thrown a huge, rowdy frat party, smashing every plate in sight, then
    buried the evidence."

    A couple of researchers I was not aware of were quoted, and I'll be sending them posts about our Biochar group:
    http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/b...guid=122501696

    and data base;
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/?q=node



    I also have been trying to convince Michael Pollan ( NYT Food Columnist, Author ) to do a follow up story, with pleading emails to him

    Since the NGM cover reads "WHERE FOOD BEGINS" , I thought this would be right down his alley and focus more attention on Mann's work.

    I've admiried his ability since "Botany of Desire" to over come the "MEGO" factor (My Eyes Glaze Over) and make food & agriculture into page turners.

    It's what Mann hasn't covered that I thought should interest any writer as a follow up article.

    The Biochar provisions by Sen.Ken Salazar in the 07 farm bill,

    http://www.biochar-international.org...gislation.html

    Dr, James Hansen's Global warming solutions paper and letter to the G-8 conference last month, and coming article in Science,
    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0804/0804.1126.pdf

    The many new university programs & field studies, in temperate soils

    Glomalin's role in soil tilth & Terra Preta,

    The International Biochar Initiative Conference Sept 8 in New Castle;
    http://www.biochar-international.org...onference.html


    Given the current "Crisis" atmosphere concerning energy, soil sustainability, food vs. Biofuels, and Climate Change what other subject addresses them all?

    Biochar, the modern version of an ancient Amazonian agricultural practice called Terra Preta (black earth), is gaining widespread credibility as a way to address world hunger, climate change, rural poverty, deforestation, and energy shortages SIMULTANEOUSLY!

    This technology represents the most comprehensive, low cost, and productive approach to long term stewardship and sustainability.
    Terra Preta Soils a process for Carbon Negative Bio fuels, massive Carbon sequestration,10X Lower Methane & N2O soil emissions, and 3X Fertility Too. Every 1 ton of Biomass yields 1/3 ton Charcoal for soil Sequestration.


    Carbon to the Soil, the only ubiquitous and economic place to put it.

    Cheers,
    Erich

    Erich J. Knight
    540 289 9750

    P.S. : Biochar Studies at ACS Huston meeting;

    578-I: http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4231.html

    579-II http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4496.html

    665 - III. http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4497.html

    666-IV http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4498.html

    Most all this work corroborates char soil dynamics we have seen so far . The soil GHG emissions work showing increased CO2 , also speculates that this CO2 has to get through the hungry plants above before becoming a GHG.
    The SOM, MYC& Microbes, N2O (soil structure), CH4 , nutrient holding , Nitrogen shock, humic compound conditioning, absorbing of herbicides all pretty much what we expected to hear.
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  19. #18  
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    I just finished reading 1491, which is quite enlightening about the very large populations and civilizations that existed in the Americas before Columbus. The discussion of terra preta in 1491 is indeed interesting. I'll browse through the links in this thread when I have time.
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  20. #19 Biochar Updates 
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    I thought these update on developments of biochar soils may interest you,
    I'm a biochar advocate, and would like to share my efforts in research, policy and industry.(bellow)

    Biochar systems for Biofuels and soil carbon sequestration are so basically conservative in nature it is a shame that republicans have not seized it as a central environmental policy plank as the conservatives in Australia have; Carbon sequestration without Taxes)

    Hope to see you at ISU for the 2010 US Biochar Conference

    Dr. Robert Brown , and the team in Ames Iowa are planing the next national biochar conference. The Conference will be June 27-30 in Ames Iowa Hosted by Iowa State University.
    I am chairman of the Markets and Business Opportunities Review Committee
    The Call for papers; http://www.ucs.iastate.edu/mnet/biochar/home.html

    The Biochar Fund deserves your attention and support.
    Exceptional results from biochar experiment in Cameroon
    http://scitizen.com/screens/blogPage...tribution=3011

    Mark my words;
    Given the potential for Laurens Rademaker's programs to grow exponentially, only a short time lies between This man's nomination for a Noble Prize.
    He recently received the Manchester prize.

    Thanks for your efforts.
    Erich


    Erich J. Knight
    EcoTechnologies Group Technical Adviser
    http://www.ecotechnologies.com/index.html
    Shenandoah Gardens (Owner)
    1047 Dave Barry Rd.
    McGaheysville, VA. 22840
    540 289 9750
    Co-Administrator, Biochar Data base & Discussion list TP-REPP






    Biochar Soils.....Husbandry of whole new orders & Kingdoms of life

    Biotic Carbon, the carbon transformed by life, should never be combusted, oxidized and destroyed. It deserves more respect, reverence even, and understanding to use it back to the soil where 2/3 of excess atmospheric carbon originally came from.

    We all know we are carbon-centered life, we seldom think about the complex web of recycled bio-carbon which is the true center of life. A cradle to cradle, mutually co-evolved biosphere reaching into every crack and crevice on Earth.

    It's hard for most to revere microbes and fungus, but from our toes to our gums (onward), their balanced ecology is our health. The greater earth and soils are just as dependent, at much longer time scales. Our farming for over 10,000 years has been responsible for 2/3rds of our excess greenhouse gases. This soil carbon, converted to carbon dioxide, Methane & Nitrous oxide began a slow stable warming that now accelerates with burning of fossil fuel. Agriculture allowed our cultural accent and Agriculture will now prevent our descent.

    Wise Land management; Organic farming and afforestation can build back our soil carbon,

    Biochar allows the soil food web to build much more recalcitrant organic carbon, ( living biomass & Glomalins) in addition to the carbon in the biochar.

    Biochar, the modern version of an ancient Amazonian agricultural practice called Terra Preta (black earth, TP), is gaining widespread credibility as a way to address world hunger, climate change, rural poverty, deforestation, and energy shortages SIMULTANEOUSLY!
    Modern Pyrolysis of biomass is a process for Carbon Negative Bio fuels, massive Carbon sequestration, 80%-90% Lower Methane & N2O soil emissions, and 2X Fertility Too.
    Every 1 ton of Biomass yields 1/3 ton Charcoal for soil Sequestration (= to 1 Ton CO2e) + Bio-Gas & Bio-oil fuels = to 1MWh exported electricity, so is a totally virtuous, carbon negative energy cycle.

    Biochar viewed as soil Infrastructure; The old saw;
    "Feed the Soil Not the Plants" becomes;
    "Feed, Cloth and House the Soil, utilities included !".
    Free Carbon Condominiums with carboxyl group fats in the pantry and hydroxyl alcohol in the mini bar.
    Build it and the Wee-Beasties will come.
    Microbes like to sit down when they eat.
    By setting this table we expand husbandry to whole new orders & Kingdoms of life.

    This is what I try to get across to Farmers, as to how I feel about the act of returning carbon to the soil. An act of penitence and thankfulness for the civilization we have created. Farmers are the Soil Sink Bankers, once carbon has a price, they will be laughing all the way to it.
    Unlike CCS which only reduces emissions, biochar systems draw down CO2 every energy cycle, closing a circle back to support the soil food web. The photosynthetic "capture" collectors are up and running, the "storage" sink is in operation just under our feet. Pyrolysis conversion plants are the only infrastructure we need to build out.


    Legislation:
    Senator Baucus is co-sponsoring a bill along with Senator Tester (D-MT) called WE CHAR. Water Efficiency via Carbon Harvesting and Restoration Act! It focuses on promoting biochar technology to address invasive species and forest biomass. It includes grants and loans for biochar market research and development, biochar characterization and environmental analyses. It directs USDI and USDA to provide loan guarantees for biochar technologies and on-the-ground production with an emphasis on biomass from public lands. And the USGS is to do biomas availability assessments.
    WashingtonWatch.com - S. 1713, The Water Efficiency via Carbon Harvesting and Restoration (WECHAR) Act of 2009

    Individual and groups can show support for WECHAR by signing online at:
    http://www.biocharmatters.org/

    The Clean Energy Partnerships Act of 2009
    The bill is designed to ensure that any US domestic cap-and-trade bill provides maximum incentives and opportunities for the US agricultural and forestry sectors to provide high-quality offsets and GHG emissions reductions for credit or financial incentives. Carbon offsets play a critical role in keeping the costs of a cap-and-trade program low for society as well as for capped sectors and entities, while providing valuable emissions reductions and income generation opportunities for the agricultural sector. The bill specifically identifies biochar production and use as eligible for offset credits, and identifies biochar as a high priority for USDA R&D, with funding authorized by the bill.
    To read the full text of the bill, go to:
    http://www.biochar-international.org...s/END09F94.pdf.

    Major Endorsements:


    Senator / Secretary of Interior Ken Salazar has done the most to nurse this biofuels system in his Biochar provisions in the 07 & 08 farm bill,
    http://www.biochar-international.org...gislation.html

    NASA's Dr. James Hansen Global warming solutions paper places Biochar / Land management the central technology for carbon negative energy systems.
    http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0804/0804.1126.pdf

    Dr. James Lovelock (Gaia hypothesis) says Biochar is "The only hope for mankind"

    Charles Mann ("1491") in the Sept. National Geographic has a wonderful soils article which places Terra Preta / Biochar soils center stage.
    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/20...soil/mann-text

    Al Gore got the CO2 absorption thing wrong, ( at NABC Vilsack did same), but his focus on Soil Carbon is right on;
    http://www.newsweek.com/id/220552/page/3

    Tony Blair & Richard Branson in the UK and conservative party opposition leader John Turnbull in Oz.




    Research:

    The Ozzie's for 5 years now in field studies
    The future of biochar - Project Rainbow Bee Eater
    http://www.sciencealert.com.au/featu...211-20142.html

    The Japanese have been at it dacades:
    Japan Biochar Association ;
    http://www.geocities.jp/yasizato/pioneer.htm

    UK Biochar Research Centre
    http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/biochar/


    Virginia Tech is in their 4 th year with the Carbon Char Group's "CharGrow" formulated bagged product. An idea whose time has come | Carbon Char Group
    He said the 2008 trials at Virginia Tech showed a 46% increase in yield of tomato transplants grown with just 2 - 5 cups (2 - 5%) "CharGrow" per cubic foot of growing medium. http://www.carbonchar.com/plant-performance

    Dr. Rory Maguire,
    In first year with Poultry litter char

    USDA in their 2 nd year; "Novak, Jeff" <Jeff.Novak@ars.usda.gov>, & "david laird" <david.laird@ars.usda.gov>,
    There are dozens soil researchers on the subject now at USDA-ARS.
    and many studies at The ASA-CSSA-SSSA joint meeting;
    http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2009am...ssion5675.html

    Nikolaus has been at it 4 years. Nikolaus Foidl,
    His current work with aspirin is Amazing in Maize, 250% yield gains, 15 cobs per plant;
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org...d-and-charcoal

    My 09 field trials with the Rodale Institute & JMU ;
    Alterna Biocarbon and Cowboy Charcoal Virginia field trials '09 http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/node/1408


    Most recent studies out;
    Imperial College test,
    This work in temperate soils gives data from which one can calculate savings on fertilizer use, which is expected to be ongoing with no additional soil amending.

    http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/1755-1...1-2be7e2f3ce1b


    The BlueLeaf Inc./ Dynamotive study are exciting results given how far north the site is,and the low application rates. I suspect, as we saw with the Imperial College test, the yield benefits seem to decrease the cooler the climate.
    The study showed infiltration rates for moisture are almost double. The lower leaf temperatures puzzles me however, I thought around 21C was optimum for photosynthesis.

    BlueLeaf Inc. and Dynamotive Announce Biochar Test Results CQuest(TM) Biochar Enriched Plots Yield Crop Increase Ranging From Six to Seventeen Percent vs. Control Plots
    http://www.usetdas.com/TDAS/NewsArti...x?NewsID=13603

    The full study at Dynomotives site;
    http://www.dynamotive.com/wp-content...Trial_2008.pdf




    Reports:


    This PNAS report (by a Nobel lariat) should cause the Royal Society to rethink their report that criticized Biochar systems sequestration potential;
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
    Reducing abrupt climate change risk using
    the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory
    actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions
    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/20....full.pdf+html

    United Nations Environment Programme, Climate Change Science Compendium 2009 http://www.unep.org/compendium2009/P...endium2009.pdf

    Congressional Research Service report (by analyst Kelsi Bracmort) is the best short summary I have seen so far - both technical and policy oriented.
    http://assets.opencrs.com/rpts/R40186_20090203.pdf .

    This is the single most comprehensive report to date, covering more of the Asian and Australian work;
    http://www.csiro.au/files/files/poei.pdf

    Dr. Scherr's report includes biochar. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6124

    I think we will be seeing much greater media attention for land management & biochar as reports like hers come out linking the roll of agriculture and climate.




    Biochar data base;
    TP-REPP
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/?q=node

    Disscusion Groups;

    The group home page location, General orientation:
    Biochar (http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/biochar/
    Biochar POLICY;
    http://groups.yahoo.com/group/biochar-policy
    Biochar Soils;
    http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/biochar-soils/
    Biochar Production;
    http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/biochar-production/

    Earth Science Terra Preta Forum, Great for students;
    Terra Preta - Science Forums
    http://hypography.com/forums/terra-preta/


    Given the current "Crisis" atmosphere concerning energy, soil sustainability, food vs. Biofuels, and Climate Change what other subject addresses them all?

    This is a Nano technology for the soil, a fractal vision of Life's relation to surface area that represents the most comprehensive, low cost, and productive approach to long term stewardship and sustainability.

    Carbon to the Soil, the only ubiquitous and economic place to put it.
    Cheers,
    Erich


    Erich J. Knight
    EcoTechnologies Group Technical Adviser
    http://www.ecotechnologies.com/index.html
    Shenandoah Gardens (Owner)
    1047 Dave Barry Rd.
    McGaheysville, VA. 22840
    540 289 9750
    Co-Administrator, Biochar Data base & Discussion list TP-REPP



    OLD STUFF


    The first North American Biochar Conference, at CU in Boulder ,
    Keynote speakers were Secretary Tom Vilsack & Dr. Susan Solomon (NOAA's head atmospheric scientist)
    http://www.regonline.com/builder/sit...eventid=684390

    My attendance is thanks to the folks at EcoTechnologies Group .
    http://www.ecotechnologies.com/index.html , they have also fully funded my field trials with the Rodale Institute & JMU)

    There is real magic coming out of the Asian Biochar conference.
    15 ear per stalk corn with 250% yield increase,
    Sacred Trees and chickens raised from near death
    Multiple confirmations of 80% - 90% reduction of soil GHG emissions
    The abstracts of the conference are at
    http://www.anzbiochar.org/AP%20BioCh...ence-may09.pdf



    Biochar Studies at the 08 ACS Huston meeting;

    Most all this work corroborates char soil dynamics we have seen so far . The soil GHG emissions work showing increased CO2 , also speculates that this CO2 has to get through the hungry plants above before becoming a GHG.
    The SOM, MYC& Microbes, N2O (soil structure), CH4 , nutrient holding , Nitrogen shock, humic compound conditioning, absorbing of herbicides all pretty much what we expected to hear.

    578-I: http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4231.html

    579-II http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4496.html

    665 - III. http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4497.html

    666-IV http://a-c-s.confex.com/crops/2008am...ssion4498.html


    Company News & EU Certification

    Below is an important hurtle that 3R AGROCARBON has overcome in certification in the EU. Given that their standards are set much higher than even organic certification in the US, this work should smooth any bureaucratic hurtles we may face.

    EU Permit Authority - 4 years tests
    Subject: Fwd: [biochar] Re: GOOD NEWS: EU Permit Authority - 4 years tests successfully completed

    Doses: 400 kg / ha 1000 kg / ha at different horticultural cultivars

    Plant height Increase 141 % versus control
    Picking yield Increase 630 % versus control
    Picking fruit Increase 650 % versus control
    Total yield Increase 202 % versus control
    Total piece of fruit Increase 171 % versus control
    Fruit weight Increase 118 % versus control

    HOMEPAGE 3R AGROCARBON: http://www.3ragrocarbon.com


    Low Tech Clean Home Made Biochar;
    http://holon.se/folke/carbon/simplec...mplechar.shtml
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  21. #20 Biochar experiment help 
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    I am researching Biochar and want to do a classroom experiment on this subject..I want to grow tomatoes...any ideas.... suggestions.....comment greatly appreciated!! THANKS!!!
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  22. #21 Education 
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    Education
    Here, you can freely register your biochar soil amendment trials in a standard format, CharML (Charcoal Markup Language), browse the registered trials and reuse parts of them to create new protocols.
    http://terracarbona.org/chardb/index.php

    The International Biochar Intuitive also has many resources

    http://www.biochar-international.org/research/education


    Good Luck
    Erich
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  23. #22  
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    It all looks quite promising, but there must be a limit to the amount of char that can be combined with soil before the nutrients become diluted beyond usefulness. I think one of the links mentioned that in the UK 10% of annual carbon emissions could be sequestered, but for how long can this be done before the soil reaches saturation? I am assuming it would be sequestered by ploughing into farmland and ploughing practices seem to tend toward shallower rather than deeper, or even no-till.

    Just wondering if limits on the capacity of farmland are being looked at.
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  24. #23  
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    I am just wanting to do an experiment for the science fair. Wanting suggestions on how to set up this experiment growing tomatoes. Very interested in the topic!!!!!!
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  25. #24  
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    The studies in small pots showing that growth benefits decline beyond 1/3 by volume ;
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/node/768

    From the data available to date, it appears that crops respond positively to biochar additions up to at least 50 Mg C ha-1, provided sufficient fertilizer is provided to prevent charcoal induced stalling. This is equivalent to 5 kg/m2 (1 lb/sf) and works out to a loose charcoal depth of about 5 cm or 2 in. Crops may show growth reductions at higher applications. For most plant species and soil conditions studied to date, this growth reduction did not occur even with 140 Mg C ha-1.

    Top Soils are a Peta-Ton Tent that can cover us all.

    A major focus of my work is coming to fruition, a Soil Carbon Standard.
    The next step in this process will be nominations for elections to seat a Soil C Board, a supreme court, if you will, under USDA / EPA oversight, to validate / certify practice & protocols for systems that build soil C.

    A dream I've had for years ( see Paraphrased speech below ) to base the coming carbon economy firmly on the foundation of top soils. My read of the agronomic history of civilization shows that the Kayopo Amazon Indians and the Egyptians were the only ones to maintain fertility for the long haul, millennium scales. Egypt has now forsaken their geologic advantage by building the Aswan dam, and are stuck, with the rest of us, in the soil C mining, NPK rat race to the bottom.


    The Ag Soil Carbon standard
    is in the second phase of review by the AMS / ARC branch at USDA.
    After initial review, approval is expected in this month. Contact Gary Delong . www.novecta.com 515-334-7305 office
    Read over the work so far;
    http://www.novecta.com/documents/Carbon-Standard.pdf

    In my efforts to have Biochar included I have recruited several to join the list, briefed the entire committee about char when issues concerning N2O & CH4 soil GHG emissions were raised, fully briefed a couple members when they replied individually to my "Reply all" briefs.

    Thanks for your efforts.
    Erich

    Erich J. Knight
    Chairman; Markets and Business Opportunities Review Committee
    US BiocharConference, at Iowa State University, June 27-30
    http://www.ucs.iastate.edu/mnet/biochar/home.html

    EcoTechnologies Group Technical Adviser
    http://www.ecotechnologies.com/index.html
    Shenandoah Gardens (Owner)
    1047 Dave Barry Rd.
    McGaheysville, VA. 22840
    540 289 9750
    Co-Administrator, Biochar Data base & Discussion list TP-REPP


    The Terra Preta Prayer

    Our Carbon who art in heaven,
    Hallowed be thy name
    By kingdom come, thy will be done, IN the Earth to make it Heaven.
    It will give us each day our daily bread and forgive us our atmospheric trespasses
    As we forgive those who trespass against the Kyoto protocols
    And lead us not into fossil fuel temptation, but deliver us from it's evil
    low as we walk through the valley of the shadow of Global Warming,
    I will feel no evil, your Bio-fuels and fertile microbes will comfort me,
    For thine is the fungal kingdom,
    and the microbe power,
    and the Sequestration Glory,
    For ever and ever (well at least 2000 years)
    AMEN


    Soil Carbon Commandments:

    1.) Thou shalt not have any other Molecule before Me

    2.) Thou shall not make wrongful use of the name of Biochar, It will not acquit anyone who mis-charactorizes it's name

    3.) Observe the Fallow days and keep them, as Sustainability commands thou

    4.) Honor your Micro Flora & Fauna , as the Soil Carbon commands you, so that your days may be long and that it may go well with you in the land that High Soil Carbon has given you.

    5.) Thou shall not murder the Soil Food Web

    6.) Neither shall thou adulterate the Soils with Toxicity

    7.) Neither shall thou steal Biomass from the Soil Food Web

    8.) Neither shall thou bear false witness against your neighbors Biochar, or about Thy own

    9.) Neither shall thou covet your neighbor's Fertility

    10.) Neither shall thou desire your neighbor's house, or field, or Pyrolysis Reactor, or farm implements, or anything that belongs to your neighbor, as thou may Create thy Own


    Soil Carbon Dream

    I have a dream that one day we live in a nation where progress will not be judged by the production yields of our fields, but by the color of their soils and by the Carbon content of their character.

    I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day, a suite of earth sensing satellites will level the playing field, giving every farmer a full account of carbon he sequesters. That Soil Carbon is given as the final arbiter, the common currency, accountant and Judge of Stewardship on our lands.

    I have a dream today.

    I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made forest, the rough soils will be made fertile, and the crooked Carbon Marketeers will be made straight, and the glory of Soil Sequestration shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see a Mutually assured Sustainability.

    This is our hope.

    My apologies to Dr. King, but I think he would understand my passion
    Erich
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  26. #25 biochar experiment 
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    easy experiment....layman's language please. hee hee!! This topic is VERY interesting to me but 6th grade level please. Can I grow 3 tomatoes in plain soil and 3 tomato plants in biochar?? Ashes from fireplace or a campfire? Do I mix it in with soil? How much?
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  27. #26 Re: biochar experiment 
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    Quote Originally Posted by agalla
    easy experiment....layman's language please. hee hee!! This topic is VERY interesting to me but 6th grade level please. Can I grow 3 tomatoes in plain soil and 3 tomato plants in biochar?? Ashes from fireplace or a campfire? Do I mix it in with soil? How much?
    If you read some of the info erich has provided you will get some answers to your questions.
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  28. #27  
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    From the data available to date, it appears that crops respond positively to biochar additions up to at least 50 Mg C ha-1, provided sufficient fertilizer is provided to prevent charcoal induced stalling. This is equivalent to 5 kg/m2 (1 lb/sf) and works out to a loose charcoal depth of about 5 cm or 2 in.
    I am calculating that the UK could take 2 billion kg of char if maxed out on every acre of cropland. Sounds like a lot but what does it mean in practical terms? By the way, prayers and commandments etc. all very cute but let's get a bit more analytical, maybe?
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  29. #28 "The Biochar Revolution" by Dr. Paul Taylor 
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    The Biochar Revolution
    http://biochar-books.com/The_Biochar_Revolution

    Review: The Biochar Revolution: Transforming Agriculture and Environment, ed. Paul Taylor

    The General rule covering emerging technology, that the "Latest book is the best book" is obfuscated by both the near simultaneous publication of The Biochar Revolution with The Biochar Solution and the complementary content of each work.

    The Biochar Revolution reads like a encyclopedic companion and testimonial.
    Dr. Taylor has the best people in academia & industry, as well as the grassroots, hands-on journeymen, as authors. Their personal travails and triumphs in development and applications of biochar soil technologies are inspiring. In the collaborative traditions of Astrophysics, Dr. Taylor's day job, these authoritative innovators allow you to view this cohesive whole system of sustainable carbon management.

    The Australians are years ahead in broad field trials with many crops and in addition, have conservative political support of soil carbon sequestration. Paul opens a window on their consistent findings of increased yields, nutrient efficiency and major reductions in soil green house gas emissions.

    Dr. Taylor has focused his cosmic perspective to the crisis our carbon based life has created with the mis-allocation of carbon. He lays out a path for carbon's re-allocation that garners high agricultural yields, biofuels, and generous climate dividends.

    For the backyard shade tree mechanic to the sustainable energy entrepreneur, important lessons can be learned here. Simple to complex testing of biochars and soils, biological conditioning and formulations of chars are explained along with small scale home made pyrolitic cook stoves. The attention to the menagerie of clean biomass cook stoves for the developing world is prescient of the recent state department, CDC & DOE support of the UN Global Clean Stove Initiative for 100 million stoves.

    Since carbon is the center of life , this work holds interest for everyone.

    Erich J. Knight
    Chairman; Markets and Business Committee
    2010 US BiocharConference, at Iowa State University




    Kelpie Wilson, author, journalist and IBI Communications Editor has this to say about The Biochar Revolution;

    Review: The Biochar Revolution: Transforming Agriculture and Environment, ed. Paul Taylor
    I want to call this book: Biochar, the Missing Manual. This compendium of practical how-to articles on the art and science of biochar bridges the current gap between research and implementation of biochar systems. While basic research on the mechanisms of biochar-soil interactions proceeds at research institutions around the globe, farmers, blacksmiths, colliers and crafty inventors of all sorts have jumped into the business of biochar production and utilization. The Biochar Revolution collects the results and best practical advice that these entrepreneurs have to offer to the biochar community.
    In the book you will read about the challenges of designing low-emissions biochar production systems from small-scale stoves to farm-scale pyrolyzers. Another section of the book is devoted to explaining simple tests to characterize biochar and methods for conducting valid field trials. Biochar producers show how they add minerals and nutrients to maximize the effectiveness of biochar, and seasoned biochar business operators share the rudiments of their business plans including information on feedstocks, flow rates and financing.
    Because biochar is rooted in an ancient, proven practice, farmers feel empowered to experiment and are beginning to accumulate and document their results. But because biochar is new to science, it is not always possible to account for these results in a predictable fashion. We are fortunate to have a vibrant, grassroots movement of biochar practitioners who are so generous in sharing their results with us. When practice and theory advance to the point where they meet in the middle, then we will truly see a biochar revolution.
    -Kelpie Wilson, author, journalist and IBI Communications Editor





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  30. #29  
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    The world is a great place, but it is falling apart and we all are responsable for this. Be responsable now and try to make it better.
    Biochar, one of the newest option can contribuate to atmospheric CO2 reduction. Find out more:
    http://www.biochar-books.com
    The Biochar Revolution is exactly what it says !
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  31. #30  
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    Biomass should never be just burnt, instead it should be fractionated to it's high value uses.
    Biochar systems achieve this, to fill in gaps and hopefully expand your story & research , particularly concerning Christoph Steiner's new work with Biochar and NH3 conservation in composting systems.


    Recent NATURE STUDY;

    Sustainable bio char to mitigate global climate change
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal...comms1053.html

    Not talked about in this otherwise comprehensive study are the climate and whole ecological implications of new , higher value, applications of chars.

    First,
    the in situ remediation of a vast variety of toxic agents in soils and sediments.
    Biochar Sorption of Contaminants;
    http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/even...vironment.html

    Dr. Lima's work; Specialized Characterization Methods for Biochar
    http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/even...erization.html
    And at USDA;
    The Ultimate Trash To Treasure: *ARS Research Turns Poultry Waste into Toxin-grabbing Char
    http://www.ars.usda.gov/IS/AR/archiv...5/char0705.htm

    Second,
    The uses as a feed ration for livestock to reduce GHG emissions and increase disease resistance.

    Third,
    Recent work by C. Steiner, at U of GA, showing a 52% reduction of NH3 loss when char is used as a composting accelerator. This will have profound value added consequences for the commercial composting industry by reduction of their GHG emissions and the sale of compost as a nitrogen fertilizer.

    Research into biochar as bulking agent in composting.
    University of Georgia, Nitrogen availability from Char & NH3 loss with composting & char.
    http://www.ibi2010.org/wp-content/up...trySteiner.pdf

    I particularly like the NH3 loss graph, spiking at each turning of the compost.
    I think this 50%+ conservation of nitrogen will allow commercial composting operations to become a main stream NPK Fertilizer product, beyond the humic substances & wee-beasties of the compost with this NPK-C analysis is a blended soilfeed ration for the livestock under your feet.

    Global Clean Stove Initiative:
    Another significant aspect of low cost Biomass cook stoves, that produce char, is removal of BC aerosols and no respiratory disease emissions. At Scale, replacing "Three Stone" stoves the health benefits would equal eradication of Malaria & Aids combined.
    The Biochar Fund :
    The broad smiles of 1500 subsistence farmers say it all ( that, and the size of the Biochar corn root balls )
    http://biocharfund.org/index.php?opt...d=55&Itemid=75
    Exceptional results from biochar experiment in Cameroon

    State Dept. Release;
    100 million clean-burning stoves in kitchens around the world.
    http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/09/147494.htm

    Since we have filled the air , filling the seas to full, Soil is the Only Beneficial place left.
    Carbon to the Soil, the only ubiquitous and economic place to put it.
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  32. #31  
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    is anyone apart from the OP interested in keeping this thread alive ? if not, then i intend to close it
    reason : very limited scope of general interest + i get the impression that the same credo is being repeated ad nauseam
    "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away." (Philip K. Dick)
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  33. #32  
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    I'm interested in the topic although I don't have anything to add at the moment.

    Regardless, I don't understand the need to close the thread. If it is uninteresting will it not die and fade away naturally? Why close off the possibility of a second life or some interesting interjection? I am genuinely curious in the reasoning behind closing this thread.
    Keanu is sad.
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  34. #33  
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    because it's always the same person who bumps the thread at intervals, with little evidence that the general membership cares all that much ?
    "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away." (Philip K. Dick)
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  35. #34  
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    Fascinating. Different forum cultures and sensibilities I suppose. Where I come from this would be considered meddlesome moderation. Perhaps the sites I'm used to are smaller and more intimate and people are expected to self-moderate when it comes to such things. I suppose if everyone knows everyone and all see themselves as equals it is difficult for a small elite to become content police over the rest (occasional troll and spammer aside). I suspect that erich is a rando as far as the forum elites are concerned. I'm obviously a noob on this site and am still figuring out what's what; apologies for the odd and indiscreet query. LLAP.
    Keanu is sad.
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  36. #35  
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    you will have noticed that i asked the membership for their opinion
    since at least one person proclaims an interest apart from the OP, the thread remains open

    as for being called meddlesome, that's a new one on me - most of the time i err on the side of relaxed standards, and as far as i'm aware so do most, if not all, other mods
    "Reality is that which, when you stop believing in it, doesn't go away." (Philip K. Dick)
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  37. #36 New Research 
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    I have just been dutiful in posting new research as it has been coming out, and will continue if the thread is kept open.


    Big News from 45 degrees North in Canada;

    BlueLeaf Inc., in conjunction with Dr. Julie Major, has released a report for the third year of our non-replicated biochar agriculture field trial begun in 2008. A copy of this report is available from our website at: http://www.blue-leaf.ca/main-en/file...ear3Report.pdf

    Some of the key findings in this report are as follows:

    - Continued greater biomass growth for the third consecutive year in biochar-amended soils;

    - Nutritional quality of plants grown in biochar-amended soil is verified by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the first time;

    - Plant nutrient uptake efficiency and plant nutritional quality is greater in plants grown in biochar-amended soil;

    - This greater plant nutritional value leads to greater milk production from these forage plants;

    - Greater milk production is potentially a significant economic stimulus for the use of biochar in agriculture;

    - In addition to the greater nutritional value of plants grown in biochar-amended soil as well as greater milk production, environmental advantages are anticipated through reduced leaching and reduced greenhouse gas emissions;

    - These results were achieved with a relatively low biochar application rate (3.9 t/ha), in a northerly climate (N45˚), on normal commercial agricultural soils and normal agricultural field practices.


    These results are very promising for the use of biochar in forage crops for dairy production. Based on these results, it is anticipated that, under similar conditions, dairy farm producers could expect both increased biomass growth as well as greater milk production from the use of biochar as a soil amendment. These new preliminary findings point to the possibility of substantial economic advantages for the agricultural use of biochar, in dairy farming in particular. In addition, due to the higher plant nutrient uptake, it is further anticipated that the use of biochar as a soil amendment will contribute to attenuating certain environmental problems related to the inefficient use of agricultural nutrients.

    Results from our other 2010 biochar field work will be released later this spring, including those from replicated field trials with silage corn done in conjunction with McGill University, first-year field trials done on soil runoff capture using biochar filters, as well as soil phosphorus phytoremediation field trials using biochar and buckwheat.

    Your comments and suggestions are appreciated, as always.

    Cheers!
    Barry

    Barry Husk
    President BlueLeaf Inc.
    T 819-472-9525 F 819-477-1857
    bhusk@blue-leaf.ca www.blue-leaf.ca


    Other Developments;
    Soon we will know the exact extent of the Terra Preta thanks to;
    NASAs Space Archaeology; $364K Terra Preta Program
    http://archaeologyexcavations.blogsp...satellite.html

    This is the finest explanation I have read on the process of biochar testing. Hugh lays it out like medical triage to extract the data most needed for soil carbon sequestration. A triage for all levels of competence, the Para-Medic Gardener to the Surgeon Chem-Engineer.
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org...izing_Biochars

    Phosphorous Solution;
    http://terrapreta.bioenergylists.org/nishio

    The Japanese have been at it decades:
    Japan Biochar Association ;
    http://www.geocities.jp/yasizato/pioneer.htm

    UK Biochar Research Centre
    http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/sccs/biochar/

    ICHAR, the Italian Biochar Association
    http://www.ichar.org/
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  38. #37 CEC Biochar Talk 
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    Dear science forum,
    The Executive Director of the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, http://www.cec.org/Page.asp?PageID=1...teLanguageID=1
    asked me to speak on Thermal fractionating Bio-Refineries for harvesting carbon & integration of nutrient management. The talk I titled:
    The Establishment of Soil Carbon as the Universal Measure of Sustainability.
    A great opportunity to expand on the broad applications and benefits for soil-c solutions directly to Administrator Lisa Jackson, and Ministers of the Environment; Mr. Juan Rafael Elvira Quesada of Mexico, and Peter Kent of Canada.

    The response was great, returning from the Montreal event, reflecting on the talk, given all the dire news coming from the oceanographer community, I should have opened the talk with the list of endorsements. Dr. Lovelock's "ONLY hope for mankind", now supported by Dr. Jim Hansen's work and since so many Molina Center representatives were there at CEC, gone strait into Dr. Molina's Nobel work. How the ozone story has been the most powerful success story of science saving the world from ecological disaster, adding, how his current PNAS report will now do the same concerning carbon.

    My hope is to wed the best Ag practices & technical pathways for both the organic and agricultural chemical schools of soil science. Both recognize Biochar as a powerful tool to foster biodiversity and nitrogen efficiency in soils.

    Thanks for your attention,
    Erich


    The Establishment of Soil Carbon as the Universal Measure of Sustainability

    The Paleoclimate Record shows agricultural-geo-engineering is responsible for 2/3rds of our excess greenhouse gases. The unintended consequence, the flowering of our civilization. Our science has now realized these consequences and has developed a more encompassing wisdom. Wise land management, afforestation and the thermal conversion of biomass can build back our soil carbon. Pyrolysis, Gasification and Hydro-Thermal Carbonization are known biofuel technologies, What is new are the concomitant benefits of biochars for Soil Carbon Sequestration; building soil biodiversity & nitrogen efficiency, for in situ remediation of toxic agents, and, as a feed supplement cutting the carbon foot print of livestock. Modern systems are closed-loop with no significant emissions. The general life cycle analysis is: every 1 ton of biomass yields 1/3 ton Biochar equal to 1 ton CO2e, plus biofuels equal to 1MWh exported electricity, so each energy cycle is 1/3 carbon negative. [1] [2] [3]

    Beyond Rectifying the Carbon Cycle;
    Biochar systems Integrate nutrient management, serving the same healing function for the Nitrogen and Phosphorous Cycles. A 50% reduction of NH3 loss when composting. Ag manure char absorbs phosphorus for nutrient credit income, CHP, Biomass Crop & energy grants and when carbon comes to account, another big credit. The compounding soil benefits; reduced nitrogen loss & soil Nitrous-oxide
    emissions and a 17% increased water efficiency are documented in trials across soil types and climates. The production of ammonia and char from biomass and other third generation companies aiming for drop-in fuels, can free agriculture from fossil energy. [4] [5]

    The Agricultural Soil Carbon Sequestration Standards are the royal road for the GHG Mitigation; This stakeholder effort with the USDA & EPA, Reviewed by both Congressional Ag Committees, who asked for expansion to ISO status, the goal now is to get the world on the same soil carbon page. [6]

    Economic at all Scales;
    Local economic stimulus is at all scales of development, from the Global Clean Cook Stove Initiative, to base load manure systems, to industrial biomass power production. Replacing "Three Stone" stoves with biomass stoves, the health effects equal the eradication of Malaria & AIDs combined. Delivering carbon credits to developing countries would further economic stimulus. [7]
    Given the lack of leadership in pricing carbon, companies are taking charge. WalMart is sourcing local produce, training small farmers and presenting bold leadership with their Sustainability Index Program. Vendors now must supply full cradle-to-cradle life cycle analysis. They are now crunching that data to formulate true carbon footprint labeling, empowering consumer choice.

    The Major Endorsements include:
    Dr. Jim Hansen, Dr. James Lovelock,
    Nobel laureates; Al Gore and Dr. Mario Molina,
    Politicians; Tony Blair, Tony Abbott, Secretaries Salazar & Vilsack,
    Environmentalist; Tim Flannery, Bill McKibben, Richard Branson & his Carbon War Room.

    The Bio-refining components to harvest Carbon;
    The photosynthetic "capture" collectors are up and running all around us, the "storage" sink is in operation just under our feet, conversion reactors are the only infrastructure we need to build out. Carbon, as the center of life, has high value to recapitalize our soils. Yielding nutrient dense foods and Biofuels, Paying Premiums of pollution abatement and toxic remediation and the growing Dividends created by the increasing biomass of a thriving soil community.
    Since we have filled the air , filling the seas to full, soil is the only beneficial place left.
    Carbon to the Soil, the only ubiquitous and economic place to put it.

    Thank you for your efforts.




    [1]
    The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago http://www.springerlink.com/content/h328n0425378u736/

    The Columbian encounter led to terrestrial biospheric carbon sequestration on the order of 2 to 5 GtC Climate Forcing.
    The Columbian Encounter and the Little Ice Age: Abrupt Land Use Change, Fire, and Greenhouse Forcing - Annals of the Association of American Geographers
    http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/con...608.2010.50243

    [2]
    FAO on Conservation Agricultural:
    "In general, soil carbon sequestration during the first decade of adoption of best conservation agricultural practices is 1.8 tons CO2 per hectare per year. On 5 billion hectares of agricultural land, this could represent one-third of the current annual global emission of CO2 from the burning of fossil fuels (i.e., 27 Pg CO2 per year)." http://www.fao.org/ag/ca/doc/CA_SSC_Overview.pdf

    Adding just 1 Ton of Biochar per hectare, (800 lbs / acre), would cover 100% Current Annual Fossil CO2 Emissions.

    "Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential of Agricultural Land Management in the United States: A Synthesis of the Literature"
    An extensive scientific literature review providing a side-by-side comparison of the biophysical greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential of more than 40 agricultural land management activities in the United States.
    http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ec...nd/TAGGDLitRev

    [3]
    Dr. Mario Molina, PNAS Report on Reducing abrupt climate change;
    http://www.pnas.org/content/early/20....full.pdf+html
    Recent NATURE STUDY;
    Sustainable Biochar to Mitigate Global Climate Change
    http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal...comms1053.html
    The future of biochar - Project Rainbow Bee Eater
    http://www.sciencealert.com.au/featu...211-20142.html
    USDA, looking at heavy metals; ARS Research Turns Poultry Waste into Toxin-grabbing Char
    http://www.ars.usda.gov/IS/AR/archiv...5/char0705.htm
    The in situ remediation of a vast variety of toxic agents in soils and sediments.
    Biochar Sorption of Contaminants;
    http://www.biorenew.iastate.edu/even...vironment.html

    [4]
    Both the Organic and Agricultural chemical schools of soil science recognize Biochar as a powerful tool to
    foster biodiversity and nitrogen efficiency in soils.


    Recent work by C. Steiner, at U of GA, showing a 52% reduction of NH3 loss when char is used as a composting accelerator. This will have profound value added consequences for the commercial composting industry by reduction of their GHG emissions and the sale of compost as an organic nitrogen fertilizer. http://www.ibi2010.org/wp-content/up...trySteiner.pdf

    Biochar effects on soil biota A review
    Soil Biology and Biochemistry journal, a review of international work by Lehmann & Janice Thies; http://www.biochar-international.org/node/2528

    The NC Farm Center has large scale field application trials encompassing 16 acres on two farms in southeastern North Carolina.
    http://www.biochar-international.org...linafarmcenter

    Virginia Tech is in their 6 th year of field trials with the Carbon Char Group's "CharGrow" formulated bagged product.
    http://www.carbonchar.com/plant-performance

    [5]
    The production of fossil fuel free ammonia & char from biomass (SynGest, http://www.syngest.com/ )
    Many third generation companies are aiming for Drop-in, or fungible fuels. A leader in this sector, supported by GE, Google & Conoco is CoolPlanet Biofuels
    http://www.coolplanetbiofuels.com/
    Farm Fossil Fuel 7% Solution;
    Their results also suggest that it could take anywhere from 50 to 70 acres for a farmer with 1,000 acres and an onsite crusher and biodiesel facility to grow enough canola to produce the fuel needed to run on-farm operations.
    http://www.physorg.com/news/2011-02-...northwest.html

    [6]
    The Ag Soil Carbon Standard
    The Ag Soil Carbon Sequestration Standards; approved by the USDA & EPA. Reviewed by both Congressional Ag Committees, who have asked for expansion of this Soil Carbon Standard to ISO status, the application was denied under the USDA ISO Guide 65 Program, it is now in rewrite for resubmission. I savor the idea that the whole world could be on the same soil carbon page and get farmers payed for their good soil-C works.
    Read over the work so far;
    http://www.novecta.com/documents/Carbon-Standard.pdf

    Biochar can even accelerate Dr. Hansen's new plan for 100 GtC of afforestation, through utilizing this substantial new addition to today's land-based NPP of about 60 GtC/yr and Biochar allows the soil food web to build much more recalcitrant organic carbon, (living biomass & Glomalins) in addition to the carbon in the biochar.
    "The Case for Young People and Nature: A Path to a Healthy, Natural, Prosperous Future".
    http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/mailin...oungPeople.pdf

    Remote Sensing;
    NASAs EO-1 hyperspectral imagery data has been used to discern Amazonian black earth, or Terra Preta soils. The full complement of earth sensing satellites, using multiple proxy measurements of soil moisture to 3 feet depth, temperature & density , even reading GHG emissions, Dead & Alive biomass from the tree tops down at 1 hectare resolutions when the Orbital Carbon Observer 2 is aloft in 2013.
    NASAs Space Archaeology; $364K Terra Preta Program
    http://archaeologyexcavations.blogsp...satellite.html

    Sowing Seeds With New Agricultural Carbon Accounting Tool Carbon dioxide emissions from agricultural activity in the United States can now be tracked with unprecedented resolution because of a method developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory team led by Tristram West.
    http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases...0602131436.htm

    The Rapid Assessment of Carbon Project, Providing a Baseline Soil Carbon Survey is 60% complete
    NRCS Soils Website: http://soils.usda.gov/

    Soils Saves Seas, The new trump card in climate change will be ocean acidity, the new science now shows a simple direct linear relationship between the CO2 levels & acidity, building soil Carbon is the simple solution.

    [7]
    Secretary Clinton Makes a big Announcement with The Global Stove Initiative;
    State Dept. Release;
    100 million clean-burning stoves in kitchens around the world.
    http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/09/147494.htm

    Biochar Work in Nine Developing Countries:
    http://www.biochar-international.org/9country

    World Bank Study: The survey data from 150 biochar projects located in 38 developing countries is available now on the IBI website at: http://www.biochar-international.org...-11_online.pdf.

    The IBI now has 33 biochar affiliates around the world -- including in China, India, Japan UK, US, Australia, Korea, Canada, Italy and Israel.
    Note also that our Japanese colleagues in the Japan Biochar Association have a very long tradition of biochar use and have been developing "modern methods" over the last thirty years. A governmental act officially acknowledged charcoal as a "soil ameliorator" back in 1988 and have completed work using Biochar as an in situ sorbent of Cd, and starting work on heavy metal radio-isotopes.

    PRO-NATURA INTERNATIONAL has the largest numbers of agroforestry soil-C & Biochar projects. Certainly the largest NGO, across the global south. They are very sensitive in both design and co-opting local social values for creating self perpetuated systems. Like the Exponential growth of biologic systems. http://pronatura.org/index.php

    The Biochar Fund has doubled subsistence farmer's incomes;
    Exceptional results from biochar experiment in Cameroon
    The broad smiles of 1500 subsistence farmers say it all, that , and the size of the Biochar corn root balls
    http://www.biochar-international.org/cameroon

    Agave Border Initiative (ABC),
    Arturo Velez sent his Agave-Derived Biofuels creation of a Bi-National Border Consortium to foster large-scale use of agave as energy crop.
    His steering committee; Dr. Soll Sussman, Coordinator of the Border Energy Forum, as well as the National Coordinators of the Bor*der 2012 Binational Environmental Program, Dr. Steve Kaffka, Director of the California Biomass Collaborative and Dr. Matthew A. Jenks, Coordinator for the Western Regional USDA-ARS Biomass Research Center, US Arid Land Agricultural Research Center, USDA.
    Government agencies, private initiative, farmers/ranchers/foresters associations, academia/researchers, NGO and entrepreneurs are welcome to participate.
    The Western US States produce only ~0.3% of the total USA biomass production, but by planting 25 million hectares of agave on marginal dryland, these States could produce 1.6+ Billion tonnes of dry biomass every year, the same amount the whole US currently produces.
    In Mexico he is working with CONOSIL, with six hundred and seventy thousand members. They own at least 40 million hectares of land. They are VERY interested in the Agave Project. Especially the States with more semiarid and arid land (upper half of Mexico).
    CONOSIL is a member of the International Family Forestry Alliance.
    CONOSIL: http://www.conosil.org.mx/ ,Arturo is the National Administrative Coordinator.
    http://www.slideshare.net/agaveproje...t-Presentation

    Craig Sams' Charcolate; Cocao growers in Belize; http://www.carbongold.com/
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  39. #38 The Establishment of Soil Carbon as the Universal Measure of Sustainability 
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    I just got a call from an environmental engineer at DuPont with this great news, They produced and tested 40 different chars, then field tested the best in situ for Hg remediation, their initial results were a 95% reduction of mercury uptake into the food web. They are also planning for more field testing at higher levels of contamination at Oak Ridge Laboratories. Don Kain from DEQ has been down to see it in Waynesboro.
    Also note the Japan Biochar Association has completed work using Biochar as an in situ sorbent of Cd, and starting work on heavy metal radionuclides at Fukushima.
    Last edited by erich; July 31st, 2011 at 01:38 AM.
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