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Thread: The Relationship between the Eyes and Energy?

  1. #1 The Relationship between the Eyes and Energy? 
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    Recently, I was reading through a psychology text book (Introduction to Psychology, James W. Kalat, 7th edition) and it mentions that when we see something using our eyes, energy goes into our eyes and energy does not come out of our eyes. Is this true?

    Based on what I know, light is a form of energy, it can behave like a particle at times, and like a wave at other times as well. When light hits an object, that it can be absorbed, reflected, transmitted, refracted or a combination of the four. Based on that, I think that energy not only comes into the eyes but also out of our eyes. When we see something, some of the light is transmitted into the eye and some is reflected (energy goes out) from the eye. As a result light (energy) is going into and out of our eyes simultaneously. In addition to that, the angle of which the light hits our eyes also affect whether the energy enters or leaves. Besides that light that enter our eyes can be scattered due to the surface of our pupil, so if the surface is not efficiently correct, light will scattered, with some transmitted into our eyes and some reflected away.

    I have not found any specific scientific journal articles that describe the relationship between light energy and the eyes. Please direct me to any resources that can help me understand the relationship between the eyes and energy. Thank you very much for your time,


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  3. #2  
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    I'm sure they meant that the energy from light that you see doesn't leave the eye. You don't see/perceive the light which leaves the eye.


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    Gonzalez-Fernandez F. Evolution of the visual cycle: the role of retinoid-binding proteins. J Endocrinol. 2002 Oct;175(1):75-88.
    The trafficking of retinoids in the retina represents a model to study soluble hormone-binding proteins in a complex system subject to profound evolutionary adaptations. Although a remarkable illustration of convergent evolution, all visual systems detect light in the same way, that is through the photoisomerization of an 11-cis retinoid to a corresponding trans isomer. What is strikingly different between the systems, is the mechanism by which the 11-cis chromophore is reformed and visual pigment regenerated in a process known as the visual cycle. The variations of the cycle address a problem inherent to retinoids themselves. That is, the properties that make these molecules suited for light detection also account for their susceptibility to oxidative and isomeric degradation, and cellular toxicity. The cycle therefore provides an opportunity to examine the role of soluble hormone-binding proteins within an integrative and evolutionary context. The present review focuses on interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP), a controversial glycolipoprotein that recruits a protein fold common to Cterminal-processing proteases and the crotonase family. This unorthodox retinoid-binding protein is entrapped in the subretinal compartment of those eyes that translocate visual cycle retinoids between the photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. Recent studies suggest that we should look beyond a strictly carrier function if we are to appreciate the role of IRBP in the visual cycle. Here we draw lessons from other soluble hormone-binding proteins to anticipate avenues of future research likely to provide insight into the structure and function of IRBP in vision.

    Full paper available here: http://joe.endocrinology-journals.or...print/175/1/75

    Hankins, et al The primary visual pathway in humans is regulated according to long-term light exposure through the action of a nonclassical photopigment.Curr Biol. 2002 Feb 5;12(3):191-8.
    BACKGROUND: The mammalian eye shows marked adaptations to time of day. Some of these modifications are not acute responses to short-term light exposure but rely upon assessments of the photic environment made over several hours. In the past, all attempts at a mechanistic understanding have assumed that these adaptations originate with light detection by one or other of the classical photoreceptor cells (rods or cones). However, previous work has demonstrated that the mammalian eye contains non-rod, non-cone photoreceptors. This study aimed to determine whether such photoreceptors contribute to retinal adaptation. RESULTS: In the human retina, second-order processing of signals originating in cones takes significantly longer at night than during the day. Long-term light exposure at night is capable of reversing this effect. Here, we employed the cone ERG as a tool to examine the properties of the irradiance measurement pathway driving this reversal. Our findings indicate that this pathway (1) integrates irradiance measures over time periods ranging from at least 15 to 120 min; (2) responds to relatively bright light, having a dynamic range almost entirely outside the sensitivity of rods; (3) acts on the cone pathway primarily through a local retinal mechanism; and (4) detects light via an opsin:vitamin A photopigment (lambda(max) approximately 483 nm). CONCLUSIONS: A photopigment with a spectral sensitivity profile quite different from those of the classical rod and cone opsins but matching the standard profile of an opsin:vitamin A-based pigment drives adaptations of the human primary cone visual pathway according to time of day.

    Lee, et al Folding and signaling share the same pathway in a photoreceptor.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98(16):9062-7.
    The photoreceptor photoactive yellow protein (PYP) was used as a model system to study receptor activation and protein folding. Refolding was studied by stopped-flow absorbance spectroscopy for PYP with either a trans or a cis chromophore. Chromophore trans to cis isomerization, the mechanism of light detection by PYP, greatly affects the protein folding process. When the cis chromophore is present, refolding from the unfolded state proceeds through the putative signaling state of PYP as an on-pathway intermediate. In addition, moderate denaturant concentrations result in the specific unfolding of the signaling state of PYP. Thus, the signaling state is common to the pathways of folding and signaling. This result provides an avenue for the study of protein folding. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to establish whether a folding intermediate is on-pathway or off-pathway. The results also reveal transient partial unfolding as a molecular mechanism for signaling.

    Full paper available here: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/98/16/9062
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    Thank you very much for all your help
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  6. #5 Re: The Relationship between the Eyes and Energy? 
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    Quote Originally Posted by gbgb
    Recently, I was reading through a psychology text book (Introduction to Psychology, James W. Kalat, 7th edition) and it mentions that when we see something using our eyes, energy goes into our eyes and energy does not come out of our eyes. Is this true?
    In the past age of science it was though that the light released from the Man's eye pointed at the body to be seen,..and it was strongly believed.
    During the Golden Arabian Scientific age "Al Hazen" came and proved the verse.
    As the eye workin like cameras, bodies emitt light photons and lamda's spectrums of diffrent bodies colors ,and falling on the eye surface as upsidedown picture, it well known also that the eye surface is wet in order to prevent high emitt intensity bodies to harm the eye surface .
    actully thats all my knowledge about this issue u showed.
    "Nothing can be accepted in this world, if it did not pass the mathematical proof."

    Leonardo Da Vinci
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    What you have been reading is a classic text - Psych Book .... not a Biology book ... and Psychology is of the mind ...so I seek to answer your question from this point of view...

    An "eye" is an organ of "vision" that detects light ... the circular opening in the center ... of the iris of the eye ... through which light passes to the retina ... the light-sensitive membrane ... that lines the back wall of the eyeball ... and is composed of several layers ...

    The retina receives an image formed by the lens .. and converts it into chemical and nervous signals that reach the brain by way of the optic nerve ... The visual system in the brain is too slow to process that information ... if the images are slipping across the retina at more than a few degrees per second (Westheimer and McKee, 1954)

    Eye movements are thus very important for visual perception ... and any failure to make them correctly can lead to serious visual disabilities ... To see a quick demonstration of this fact ... try the following experiment: hold your hand up.. about one foot (30 cm) in front of your nose.. Keep your head still.. and shake your hand from side to side .. slowly at first... and then faster and faster. At first you will be able to see your fingers quite clearly.
    But as the frequency (energy)of shaking (energy) passes about one hertz ... the fingers will become a blur. Now, keep your hand still ... and shake your head (up and down or left and right). No matter how fast you shake your head .... the image of your fingers remains clear. This demonstrates that the brain can move the eyes opposite to head motion (energy) much better than it can follow .. or pursue ... a hand movement (energy). When your pursuit system fails to keep up with the moving hand ... images slip on the retina and you see a blurred hand. Having two eyes is an added complication ... because the brain must point both of them accurately enough that the object of regard falls on corresponding points of the two retinas ... otherwise ... double vison would occur. The movements of different body parts are controlled by striated muscles acting around joints. The movements of the eye are no exception ... but they have special advantages not shared by skeletal muscles and joints ... and so are considerably different.

    The phenomenon of light or sound waves being thrown back from a surface ... the act of reflecting ...or turning or sending back ... what you may call energy ...

    As Shakespeare wrote, “The eye sees not itself But by reflection….”
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  8. #7  
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    I belive that energy dosenot come out of our eyes since it is absorbed by special cell cells on the retina called rods and cones. :-D
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