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Thread: Protein Coat

  1. #1 Protein Coat 
    Forum Ph.D. Heinsbergrelatz's Avatar
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    Scientists have found out that viruses that cause the common flu often cannot be treated successfully mostly because the intelligent viruses keep changing its protein coat, so we have to wait until the T&B cells do something about it
    But my question here is that, what do we actually mean by the "protein coats here?"
    is it the ordinary protein we are talking about like amino acids, etc..? or a completely different sub-group of molecules?, are there millions of proteins out there, that we dont know?

    and the last part of my question is that, what makes our DNA different to the viruses DNA? Every DNA is composed of the same 4 chemicals isnt it?, thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine . is it the way the chemicals structures itself? And how does these 4 chemicals that composes our anatomy do such a wide variety of tasks, so precise and spectacular its thought to be beyond explanation?

    any ideas, suggestions, and information would be great thank you


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  3. #2 Re: Protein Coat 
    Moderator Moderator TheBiologista's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Heinsbergrelatz
    Scientists have found out that viruses that cause the common flu often cannot be treated successfully mostly because the intelligent viruses keep changing its protein coat, so we have to wait until the T&B cells do something about it
    But my question here is that, what do we actually mean by the "protein coats here?"
    is it the ordinary protein we are talking about like amino acids, etc..?
    Proteins are a hugely diverse family of molecules but they all share key characteristics. Proteins are long chains composed of sequences of amino acids joined end to end. There are 22 standard amino acids that are used by most life forms from viruses to blue whales. The sequence of that chain determines many things. Some groups of amino acids might have a particular chemical function. And parts of the chain will associate with other parts creating a complicated 3d structure. The protein that carries oxygen in your blood has a different sequence and thus structure to the the protein that activates your T cells.

    Quote Originally Posted by Heinsbergrelatz
    or a completely different sub-group of molecules?, are there millions of proteins out there, that we dont know?
    There are a great many unsequenced proteins, just as there are a great many unsequenced genes. But as far as I know the protein coat of influenza is fully sequenced. It just changes an acid here and an acid there with the result that when it enters a new host it is unlikely that they'll have immune memory for the new sequence.

    Quote Originally Posted by Heinsbergrelatz
    and the last part of my question is that, what makes our DNA different to the viruses DNA? Every DNA is composed of the same 4 chemicals isnt it?, thymine, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine . is it the way the chemicals structures itself?
    Some viruses use RNA instead of DNA, something that our cells are able to recognise. When they do use DNA they will sometimes use single stranded DNA, which again our cells innately recognise. For viruses that use double stranded DNA (which is the kind we use), there are certain extra indicators that our cells may recognise. But in terms of components, A T G C and U, viral RNA and DNA are the same as the RNA and DNA that animals such as humans use.

    Quote Originally Posted by Heinsbergrelatz
    And how does these 4 chemicals that composes our anatomy do such a wide variety of tasks, so precise and spectacular its thought to be beyond explanation?
    Well how do you get Windows Vista, Internet browsers and video games from just a sequence of 1's and 0's? DNA is a code. Our cells can interpret that code to make a message out of RNA that is translated into protein sequences. Such a protein may be composed of hundreds of amino acids, with any one of 22 acids at any given point in the sequence. Proteins may also be bolted together or modified with sugars or fats to make even more complex molecules. So it's easy to see how such a wide diversity of structures and functions can be derived from DNA.


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  4. #3  
    Forum Ph.D. Heinsbergrelatz's Avatar
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    Can we ever decode the Sequence and combinations of all DNA and protein types that causes such a pain in our modern world?
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  5. #4  
    Moderator Moderator TheBiologista's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Heinsbergrelatz
    Can we ever decode the Sequence and combinations of all DNA and protein types that causes such a pain in our modern world?
    Well that's what many biologists are trying to do. Not all at once of course. A huge task, but a worthy one.
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  6. #5  
    Forum Ph.D. Heinsbergrelatz's Avatar
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    ok, I see
    anyway, thank-you for your time, and information
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