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Thread: The Webb Space Telescope - Fully Operational and Providing Stunning Images of the Universe!

  1. #1 The Webb Space Telescope - Fully Operational and Providing Stunning Images of the Universe! 
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    By now most of you have seen the first remarkable images from the Webb Space Telescope. For those who have not, or would like a specific link to them all with expert descriptions, check out the NASA link below (1).

    These are surely some of the most spectacular images from space obtained to date. The detail, particularly in "Webb’s First Deep Field" (SMACS 0723), reveals a remarkable number of extremely distant objects, most if not all are galaxies many billions of years old.

    Some folks looking at these images might wonder how a telescope, which captures light primarily in infrared, can produce images with such striking visible color. How could this be? The means by which this is accomplished is somewhat involved, but one that is used on many images generated from many telescopes. For those interested in how this is done, visit another NASA site (2).

    After a long delay to launch and a much larger price tag, most will agree that it was all worth it in the end. Let's hope that the telescope, estimated to last for 20 years due to a nearly perfect launch, will provide a vast stream of extraordinary science.


    "First Images from the James Webb Space Telescope"

    1. https://www.nasa.gov/webbfirstimages


    "The Truth About Hubble, JWST, and False Color"

    2. https://asd.gsfc.nasa.gov/blueshift/...e-false-color/


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    Images of Jupiter from the Webb Telescope have been released by NASA*. They represent a unique perspective of the gas giant in the IR. Quoting from the link:

    " “The Jupiter images in the narrow-band filters were designed to provide nice images of the entire disk of the planet, but the wealth of additional information about very faint objects (Metis, Thebe, the main ring, hazes) in those images with approximately one-minute exposures was absolutely a very pleasant surprise,” said John Stansberry, observatory scientist and NIRCam commissioning lead at the Space Telescope Science Institute."

    Looks like this telescope has a rather large number of targets it can image and obtain data from, including some asteroids.


    "Webb Images of Jupiter and More Now Available In Commissioning Data"

    * https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/07/...ssioning-data/


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    A study based out of Cornell University has evaluated early data from Webb's first Deep Field, and calculate that the number of disc galaxies is 10 times greater in the early Universe than predicted by earlier Hubble results. The abstract can be seen in preprint form (1).

    A review of this paper is available in the BBC science section (2).

    Used to read there were hundreds of billions of galaxies in the universe. But others claim the number is in the trillions.

    Does anyone have even a remote clue about how many there really are? And how many are very large, like ours, or very small, the LMC. Seems like a tough nut to crack. How could anyone ever know?

    One imagines that some are still forming, even after 13.8 billion years. There are a lot of massive voids in the Universe which may have very diffuse clouds of gas which could take a long time to form galaxies. A WAG perhaps, but not impossible.


    "Panic! At the Disks: First Rest-frame Optical Observations of Galaxy Structure at z>3 with JWST in the SMACS 0723 Field"

    1. https://arxiv.org/abs/2207.09428


    "'Nasa's James Webb telescope reveals millions of galaxies"

    2. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-62259492
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  5. #4  
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    I feel like Donald Trump did.

    "STOP the cont!!!
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    NASA has issued a list of Science Observations for the Webb Telescope (1).

    From large asteroids and trojans to Deep Fields, there is something there for just about everyone.

    The biggest issue is getting approval for time on the instrument. It would seem that there are quite a few targets, but most are not those of the greatest interest and value.

    My favorite in this list will be the earliest AGNs, which clearly indicate the presence of SMBHs. If primordial black holes formed in the very early universe, they may have generated galaxies much earlier than predicted by other means. It may place the notion of population III stars into question as to their role in SMBH formation.

    Direct collapse primordial black holes would provide a reason to look for the much earlier appearance of AGNs than those currently confirmed (2). This telescope may very well answer some serious questions regarding the time-line on the appearance of galaxies, and how their SMBHs were formed.


    "Approved Programs"

    1. https://www.stsci.edu/jwst/science-e...roved-programs


    "'Direct Collapse' Black Holes May Explain Our Universe's Mysterious Quasars"

    2. https://www.forbes.com/sites/startsw...h=674bc45e71f0
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  7. #6  
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    Some great photos being posted over here
    https://www.physicsforums.com/thread...1#post-6657974
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    Some great photos being posted over here
    https://www.physicsforums.com/thread...1#post-6657974
    A related article covers some of this with more information than provided in that thread *. Although that thread has images not seen in most searches.

    Thanks for the link, was not aware of some of these.


    "Two Weeks In, the Webb Space Telescope Is Reshaping Astronomy"

    * https://www.quantamagazine.org/two-w...nomy-20220725/
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  9. #8  
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    Some great photos being posted over here
    https://www.physicsforums.com/thread...1#post-6657974
    The data from that other forum is actually raw data from the Webb Telescope feed now on the website of The Space Telescope Science Institute. This site includes raw data for a lot of instruments, and is somewhat tricky to work with.

    There is an "easy guide" to do this posted below*. You really need to know specifics like the exact name of the image you want to review, and a number of other aspects. The link below has a youtube video on how to get the raw data downloaded, and a text version. It might be best to try both of them for anyone who wants to try this out. And this may only work with Windows, not sure.

    The text version on accessing the data is pretty clear, but omits an important step. Where it says to 'type in NGC3324' (the Carina nebula raw data set) and press search, etc. You actually need to hit 'enter' after typing NGC3324 or the search button won't light up. The text omits that part, assuming we all should know this. Downloads (just for one session) can take a while as shown by the small rotating 'ring', which must stop before proceeding.

    It is not at all intuitive unless you are really a pro in looking over this. Did a bit of poke-and-hope and managed to find some interesting things. But there is usually no commentary or legends, so you almost have to be an expert on the images to get a lot out of them. It also downloads the data to a drive so you have to go look for it somewhere else. And these data files are very large, some 100s of GBs. Probably best for most of us to wait until they are processed and released, with commentary by the astronomers who are working with them now.

    But anybody with more images, please let us see them!



    "The Easiest Way to Download Raw Data from the James Webb Space Telescope"

    * https://www.astroexploring.com/blog/...ope-in-windows
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    Just found this.

    https://webbtelescope.org/news/first-images/gallery

    Looks fairly full of images

    What do you think?

    Any good?
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  11. #10  
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    Just found this.

    https://webbtelescope.org/news/first-images/gallery

    Looks fairly full of images

    What do you think?

    Any good?
    These are great, with commentary.

    But the raw images are of many different objects not shown in the above link. Some kind of gas or dust among star fields. And many are of distant galaxies, etc.

    Go back to that forum link and look at some of those images that are on page 10. It is loaded with a lot of detailed raw image data, etc. They look like screen grabs from the raw data link I have posted above, and even some processed data. A few have some kind of gas or dust among star fields.

    Look at post #337 as that has a lot of unique images of this kind. They may be in the LMC because I recall seeing original MIRI data of this sort when it first became operational. If you can master the Space Telescope Science Institute's website, there will be many cool things to see, and as soon as they are available.
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    A recent article in Science is worthy of attention. It covers what has been seen so far by the telescope's deepest images*. Though not yet confirmed, preliminary data indicates the birth of galaxies much sooner than predicted. Probably has to do with massive, direct collapse primordial black holes, which were the earliest seeds to galaxy formation.

    In any event, the article is certainly worth reading :


    "Webb telescope reveals unpredicted bounty of bright galaxies in early universe"

    * https://www.science.org/content/arti...early-universe
    Last edited by Double Helix; August 13th, 2022 at 07:45 PM.
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    The Webb Telescope has been peering at Jupiter recently and returned some interesting images of auroras and temperature variables, etc. The data has been generated by the Near-Infrared Camera. Three filters were used to obtain the images shown in the release*.

    It seems that the telescope is going to provide some pretty stunning images, both near and far. Still cannot wait for those early galaxies to be verified. That seems the most significant of all the observations for this telescope as it is the only instrument capable of collecting the most significant data for such distant objects.


    "Webb’s Jupiter Images Showcase Auroras, Hazes"

    * https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/08/...auroras-hazes/
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    Quote Originally Posted by Double Helix View Post
    The Webb Telescope has been peering at Jupiter recently and returned some interesting images of auroras and temperature variables, etc. The data has been generated by the Near-Infrared Camera. Three filters were used to obtain the images shown in the release*.

    It seems that the telescope is going to provide some pretty stunning images, both near and far. Still cannot wait for those early galaxies to be verified. That seems the most significant of all the observations for this telescope as it is the only instrument capable of collecting the most significant data for such distant objects.


    "Webb’s Jupiter Images Showcase Auroras, Hazes"

    * https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/08/...auroras-hazes/
    So beautiful.

    Love the smudgy galaxies in the background.
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    So beautiful.
    With much more to come, to be sure. And Webb is not just about imaging, it is also about chemical compositions in atmospheres, and some new data is interesting in this respect.

    The telescope has observed CO2 in the atmosphere of an exoplanet, WASP-39b*. This planet is a gas giant about the mass of Saturn, and located 700 lys from Earth. Previous studies of the planet has confirmed water vapor, sodium, and potassium, and now Webb has confirmed CO2.

    Quoting from the link below:

    "The research team used Webb’s Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) for its observations of WASP-39b. In the resulting spectrum of the exoplanet’s atmosphere, a small hill between 4.1 and 4.6 microns presents the first clear, detailed evidence for carbon dioxide ever detected in a planet outside the solar system."

    So it appears that the telescope is going to make some significant contributions to our understanding of exoplanets, and so many other things. It is rather exciting to see such data, and it would be really great if there were a half dozen of these telescopes out there since most of us will be wanting more and more, as it is only now trickling in. It seems that patience is a virtue that is essential in astronomy.


    "NASA’s Webb Detects Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanet Atmosphere"

    * https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...net-atmosphere
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    The telescope has imaged its first exoplanet, HIP 65426 b, a gas giant about 385 lys distant (1,2,3).

    Data has been collected by both the NIRCam and MIRI instruments for various IR wavelengths. Spectral data is still being analyzed and will likely take some time since a gas giant would be expected to have some degree of chemical variability.

    While it is anticipated that Webb will provide better imagining in the IR, its ability to block the light from a distant star with its coronagraph provides additional capability. Many more of these exoplanets are to imaged, to be sure. Perhaps they will see a rocky exoplanet that looks like a pale blue dot!


    "NASA’s Webb Takes Its First-Ever Direct Image of Distant World"

    1. https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/09/...distant-world/


    "Webb telescope wows with first image of an exoplanet"

    2 https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-022-02807-4


    Exoplanet HIP 65426 b

    3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIP_65426_b
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    The latest image from the telescope is a fabulous star cluster in the LMC's Tarantula Nebula*.

    It showcases star cluster NGC 2070's central grouping known as R136. It is rather spectacular, as usual.


    "Tarantula Stars R136 from Webb "

    * https://science.nasa.gov/tarantula-stars-r136-webb
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    The telescope has been looking at Mars this month and the latest report from NASA indicates numerous surface features and atmospheric details have been resolved*.

    While some of this was already known, unknown aspects of Mars are sure to be revealed. It certainly is a good dry run for looking at other rocky planets outside our solar system.


    "Mars Is Mighty in First Webb Observations of Red Planet"

    * https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/09/...of-red-planet/
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    The telescope is now providing images of Neptune, with excellent resolution of its rings, and other features :


    "New Webb Image Captures Clearest View of Neptune’s Rings in Decades"

    https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...ngs-in-decades
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  20. #19  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Double Helix View Post
    The telescope is now providing images of Neptune, with excellent resolution of its rings, and other features :


    "New Webb Image Captures Clearest View of Neptune’s Rings in Decades"

    https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...ngs-in-decades
    Brilliant!!
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  21. #20  
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    Brilliant!!
    There is also a Webb wide-field view of Neptune found on the ESA site*

    It is pretty brilliant too, with all the distant galaxies included!


    "Neptune Wide-Field (NIRCam Image)"

    * https://esawebb.org/images/weic2214e/
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    A group from the University of Toronto and other universities has been looking at the Webb Deep Field image SMACS 0723. It appears they have found direct evidence that some, if not all globular clusters, which appear in many galaxies, likely formed shortly after the BB (1). While this has also been suggested from other studies of these clusters, this may offer the first real data to demonstrate these are indeed composed of extremely ancient stars.

    An overview of this research can be found in the BBC science section (2).

    A high resolution image of this Webb Deep Field can be seen at the NASA site (3). Double-clicking on the image will provide maximum image size and scrolling allows one to investigate various areas of the field based on the first, smaller version. There are a lot of very ancient galaxies in this image.



    "The Sparkler: Evolved High-redshift Globular Cluster Candidates Captured by JWST"

    1. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/1...213/ac90ca/pdf


    'Shiny, sparkly object' in James Webb space image"

    2. https://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-63090818


    "NASA’s Webb Delivers Deepest Infrared Image of Universe Yet"

    3. https://www.nasa.gov/image-feature/g...f-universe-yet
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  23. #22  
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    One of the latest images from the Webb telescope is a pair of galaxies, using Hubble data for a more complete view. The two unique aspects of the image is that one is an elliptical galaxy and the other a spiral. The field around the pair contains many distant galaxies. Quite impressive.


    "Webb, Hubble Team Up to Trace Interstellar Dust Within a Galactic Pair "

    * https://webbtelescope.org/contents/e...ctic-pair.html
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    The Webb telescope has been used to detect the presence of organic compounds near the cores of three galaxies with AGNs*. The telescope has confirmed the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAs). Many believed these PHAs could not exist in the high energy environment of a SMBH, but these new results indicate otherwise.

    It has now been postulated that large amounts of gas in these regions might be preventing the PHAs from being destroyed. But there appears to be some impact of this environment as smaller and ionized PHAs are not found, likely due to their lower stability to radiation. Detecting these compounds in distant galaxies offers convincing evidence of the power of this telescope to bring exceptional observations to the study of our Universe.


    "James Webb Space Telescope reveals new surprises on galaxy organic molecules near black holes"

    * https://phys.org/news/2022-10-james-...e-reveals.html
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    Revisiting an image made famous by the Hubble telescope, the Webb telescope has brought us a new, high resolution image of "The Pillars of Creation"*.

    This latest release by NASA is compared with that by Hubble in the NASA link below, and the number of new stars seen within the gas and dust clouds is striking. Not surprising as the Webb image is capturing IR. One can only wonder how many more fabulous results will come from this remarkable telescope. It is just getting started.


    "NASA’s Webb Takes Star-Filled Portrait of Pillars of Creation"

    * https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...rs-of-creation
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    The image in the link from the last post by the Hubble telescope comparing the Eagle Nebula in visible light to the Webb image in IR is quite striking. However, they have also obtained outstanding IR results with the Hubble of this same image*. Just to set the record straight, Hubble also has superb resolution, and is well suited for its many targets in the years to come.


    "Pillars of the Eagle Nebula in Infrared"

    * https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap210307.html
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    Those images are undeniably astounding but they also imply how tiny we are in comparison.

    Until recent history it was believed that our world was the centre of a comparatively small universe and now the scale of what we observe (and try to comprehend) is mind boggling.

    And who is to say that we may not make comparable progress in the years to come if we do not destroy our vantage point in short order?
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    The Webb telescope's latest release reveals two merging galaxies (IC 1623)*. The pair offers a unique example for studying star formation in the IR since the interacting galaxies result in a high rate of star formation - over 20x that seen in the Milky Way. Combined with other images from Hubble, etc. , the data is expected to provide new insight into interacting galaxies. As usual, the field contains a number of distant galaxies which are unique to most Webb images.


    "Webb Explores a Pair of Merging Galaxies"

    * https://esawebb.org/images/potm2210a/
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    A high redshift object has been observed by the Webb telescope, suggesting some interesting aspects on galaxy formation in the very early universe*. The data was obtained from lensing by a large galaxy cluster, and offers three different unique images of the distant object estimated at 400 my after the BB. It is not yet known if it represents a galaxy merger, or one galaxy with regions of variable star formation. While previously observed by Hubble at lower resolution, these results offer new insights into the very early universe. The IR capabilities of this telescope for studying the early universe are only now becoming obvious, and that from only a very limited number of observations. There must be a lot of very anxious and excited astronomers out there, waiting for their time on the instrument.


    "Webb Offers Never-Before-Seen Details of Early Universe"

    * https://blogs.nasa.gov/webb/2022/10/...arly-universe/
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    The telescope has captured an early stage in the formation of a new star. This activity is hidden in the IR image, "cocooned in a dark cloud of dust and gas", but a great deal of detail is apparent, including an "edge-on protoplanetary disk". It is estimated at 100,000 years old, not yet burning hydrogen, and is considered a class 0 protostar. *


    "NASA’s Webb Catches Fiery Hourglass as New Star Forms"

    * https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...new-star-forms
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    The best one yet?

    And the central horizontal line clearly shows evidence of the formation of a flat world
    Last edited by geordief; November 17th, 2022 at 09:39 AM.
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    Quote Originally Posted by geordief View Post
    The best one yet
    It is a fabulous image.


    Those pesky folks who control the release of images from the Webb telescope said they would put out about one new image per week. But this latest data from imaging galaxy cluster Abell 2744 had to make it out sooner by its very nature. The data is rather impressive as it provides some more high redshift galaxies when they were not expected to have formed (1). The oldest of these is GLASS-z12, estimated at 350 mya the BB.

    Data from some of the first Webb imaging suggests an even earlier galaxy, CEERS-93316, at 240 mya the BB (2). None of this data has been confirmed yet, and this will probably take a long time. Still, more data from Webb suggesting such early galaxies is somewhat convincing. What is most significant for some is that these early galaxies suggest the mechanism(s) of their formation may need to be revised. We are likely to see some very early galaxies when all the data comes in, and many more of them.


    "NASA’s Webb Draws Back Curtain on Universe’s Early Galaxies"

    1. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...early-galaxies


    "CEERS-93316"

    2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CEERS-93316
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    NASA has released data from Webb demonstrating the first direct examination of various atmospheric gases and their distribution on an exoplanet (1,2). This planet, WASP-39b, is about 700 light years distant and is described as a "hot Saturn", as it is an equivalent size and very close to its host star. A considerable variety of chemicals have been observed, with the impact of photochemistry being of significant interest. Quoting from the link below (1) :

    "The results have excited the exoplanet science community. Webb’s exquisitely sensitive instruments have provided a profile of WASP-39 b’s atmospheric constituents and identified a plethora of contents, including water, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, sodium and potassium. The findings bode well for the capability of Webb’s instruments to conduct the broad range of investigations of all types of exoplanets, including small, rocky worlds like those in the TRAPPIST-1 system."

    Looks like this telescope will be playing a major role in our understanding of exoplanets, and the possibility of a bio-signature being found, perhaps in the near future. Stay tuned.


    "NASA’s Webb Reveals an Exoplanet Atmosphere as Never Seen Before"


    1. https://webbtelescope.org/contents/n.../news-2022-060

    and

    2. https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard...er-seen-before


    Last edited by Double Helix; November 22nd, 2022 at 02:49 PM.
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