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Thread: zhou jian Star Charts

  1. #1 zhou jian Star Charts 
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    Mathematical Analysis Star Chart Shows the Observational Characteristics Of the Milky Way is Destined for Head-on Collision With Andromeda Galaxy
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 9, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)

    The universe is all guess anything is possible When you simply observe it, and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to go study it, that all the guess neither exist.

    Resized to 91% (was 551 x 796) - Click image to enlarge


    From the Hubble official website (HUBBLESITE) 2012.5.31: NASA (NASA) Astronomers announced Thursday, we were able to clear the next one will seriously affect our solar system, galactic cosmic event: the two giant super collision of galaxy - the Milky Way and neighboring Andromeda galaxy and the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxy merger simulation analysis of the results of the various stages.
    "After nearly a century of speculation about the future destiny of Andromeda and our Milky Way, we at last have a clear picture of how events will unfold over the coming billions of years," said Sangmo Tony Sohn of STScI.
    Yes ah, the Andromeda Galaxy and the Milky Way's future has been speculation about a century now we can finally clear picture of it for billions of years in the future. However, after analytical cosmology was born in 2009, we not only so, but also from the observational point of view to a clear picture of it for billions of years the observational characteristics of the future.
    Look! The mathematical analysis of the Star Chart the Milky Way is destined to collide with the Andromeda Galaxy has been completed, in accordance with the quantitative analysis of the star chart the number of rules, called the star chart No. 2,012,054, Zhou Jian.
    Look! Piece of mathematical analysis of the star chart from the angle of observation tells us, the Andromeda galaxy we see today is an apparent brightness of 3.440 and so on, the size of 146,170 light years large galaxy, and is 357.163km / s depending on the speed Mercedes-Benz came toward us really fast enough for 1.29 million km per hour speed time-consuming even less than 18 minutes to fly from Earth to the Moon. Because of this, to 1 billion years later, we see the Andromeda galaxy is a visual brightness of 2.101 and other galaxies, to 1.5 billion years after, we can see the Andromeda galaxy is a visual brightness 0.896 such as galaxies, to 2 billion years after we see the Andromeda galaxy is a visual brightness of -1.586 and other galaxies, thus, we live in the outer edge of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxy outer edge of the touch together, and go down to 1 billion or 2 billion years is the process of merging, and we humans, in this fusion into immersive, I hope our people on earth at that time to the evolution of the universe (that is, we often say that the aliens) fly freely in the deep space of the universe, out of danger of collision of the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies, to enjoy the home we lived in the past from the depths of the universe - Milky Way and the fairy Block large galaxy collision magnificent spectacle.
    You know, this is billions of years can be such a close watch once so grand cosmic fireworks, but now, now! Today! ! Today! ! ! Zhou Jian star chart we could have given parsing the universe to learn from the angle of observation in a carefree way to enjoy such Marvel cosmic event.
    Let us enjoy the magnificent miracle of the Milky Way and Andromeda Galaxy collision! This is the next billions of years the observational characteristics of scene, and analytical cosmology brought us ... analytical cosmological. Analytical cosmological ! Analytical cosmological ! ! At this point, Zhou Jian, founder of the analytical cosmological really excited! Excited! Excited! ! Excited! ! !

    Appendix: the Milky Way is destined to collide with the Andromeda Galaxy mathematical analysis of the results list

    银河系注定与仙女座大星系相撞的数理分析结果列表
    Milky Way is destined to collide with the Andromeda Galaxy mathematical analysis of the results list
    参数名称 Parameter name 现在 Now 10亿年后 1 billion years after 15亿年后 1.5 billion years after 20亿年后 2 billion years after
    视星等 Apparent magnitude(mv) 3.44 2.101 0.896 -1.586
    观测红移 Observation redshift -0.001004 -0.001091 -0.001134 -0.001173
    周坚红移 Zhou Jian redshift 0.000188 0.000102 0.000058 0.000019
    距离 Distance(ly) 2,589,730 1,398,259 802,686 256,038
    绝对星等 Absolute magnitude(Mv) -21.06
    多普勒红移 Doppler redshift -0.001192
    背离视向速度 Radial velocity(km/s) -357.163
    多普勒属性 Doppler properties 多普勒蓝移星系 Doppler blue shift galaxies
    星系大小 Galaxy size(ly) 146,170


     

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  3. #2  
    Forum Professor Zwirko's Avatar
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    The collision with Andromeda would probably be a very boring event to witness. Due to the conservation of surface brightness there'd not be much to see.


     

  4. #3 Zhou Jian 2012055 Star Chart Shows that the PTF 10fqs Variable Star Distance Is 56 Million Light Years 
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    Zhou Jian 2012055 Star Chart Shows that the PTF 10fqs Variable Star Distance Is 56 Million Light Years
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 10, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)

    The universe is like this, when you simply to observation it, all the guess may,and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to study it again after, all of that guess don't exist.



    From the U.S. Space Administration (NASA) official website 2012.6.8 news reports by the NASA / ESA Hubble Space Telescope in the Messier 99 galaxy shooting a catalog for the PTF 10fqs, it is in Macyyeah 99 the side of the spiral arms, star map in the upper left corner of the image at the upper left corner of an orange yellow. And according to professional research report (Mansi by M. Kasliwal et al 2011 ApJ 730 134. The PTF 10fqs: the Luminous the Red Nova, in the Spiral Galaxy Messier, 99) to verify the PTF 10fqs a brightness of 18.9 ± 0.1 magnitude, the absolute brightness of -12.3 star variable star.

    However, when we will the two observation data draw to analytical cosmology (29 June 2009 was born in Chinese) given Zhou Jian diagram, through the Zhou Jian diagram mathematical analysis, we find that PTF 10 FQS variable star distance we are 56,102,897 ly (56 million light years), the corresponding Zhou Jian redshift zz is 0.0040904.

    Of course, we found the PTF 10fqs former star is O-type main sequence stars, in accordance with the characteristics of the O-type main sequence stars, which corresponds to the apparent brightness should be between 25.5 and other 27.2 etc. through mathematical analysis.

    In summary, the Messier 99 galaxies distance is 56 million light-years. As we observed in Messier 99 is an apparent brightness of 9.870 mag., a redshift of 0.008036 (SIMBAD database) galaxies, so we can get the following analytical universe M99 characteristics data by Zhou Jian diagram mathematical analysis:

    1、Distance: 56,102,897 light years
    2、Zhou Jian redshift: 0.004090
    3、Doppler redshift: 0.003946
    4、observation redshift: 0.008036 (the actual observations, SIMBAD database)
    5、a departure from the radial velocity: 1,180.539 km / s
    6、 the absolute magnitude: -21.332 mag.
    7、Galaxy size: 184,156 light-years.

    Oh my god...... !The author really don't want to always so excited down, but so that they have to let the author excited down. The author found Zhou Jian’s law and founded the analytical cosmology since, that is such a sustained excitement. I found! I found! I found Zhou Jian redshift! I created the analytical cosmology! Look! Numbers for Zhou Jian 2012055 mathematical analysis Star Chart was complete, and it has a nickname: messier 99 Variable Star PTF 10 FQS mathematical analysis Star Chart, it through the analytical cosmology of the Zhou Jian diagram given PTF 10 FQS Variable Star for Numbers by mathematical analysis tells us, messier 99 galaxies 56 million light years away from us, and precise distance is 56102897 light years, please the Hubble team of scientists give verification, and so on. Validation! Validation!!
     

  5. #4  
    Comet Dust Collector Moderator
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    I have merged your excessively long titled star chart threads into this one. Please post here.
     

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    Thank you very much
     

  7. #6 No.2012056 Zhou Jian Star Chart Shows the Dwarf Galaxy UGC 5497 Size Is 12 Thousand Light-Years 
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    No.2012056 Zhou Jian Star Chart Shows the Dwarf Galaxy UGC 5497 Size Is 12 Thousand Light-Years
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 11, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)

    The universe is like this, when you simply to observation it, all the guess may,and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to study it again after, all of that guess don't exist.

    From the European space agency (ESA) the Hubble (Hubble) website picture of the week 2012.6.11 (potw1224) report that the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has captured this view of the dwarf galaxy UGC 5497, it is a small blue dwarf galaxies, and the apparent brightness is 15.7 (B band), the distance is 12 million light-years.

    However, when we will the two observation data draw to analytical cosmology (29 June 2009 was born in Chinese) given Zhou Jian diagram, through its mathematical analysis, we find that the dwarf galaxies the size of the UGC 5497 only 12000 light years, and the specific mathematical analysis results are as follows:

    1, Distance r: 12,000,000 ly (ESA/Hubble/June 11, 2012)
    2, Zhou Jian Redshift zz: 0.000872
    3, Doppler Redshift zd: unknown (because of its redshift data unknown)
    4, Observation Redshift zg: unknown (because of its redshift data unknown)
    5, Departure From the Radial Velocity υ: unknown (because of its redshift data unknown)
    6, Absolute Magnitude M: 12.133
    7, Galaxies Size D: 12,156 ly (Zhou Jian function calculated)

    Because of our Hubble observation to it is a blue dwarf galaxies, therefore constitute its main stars is blue stars, and based on the HR diagram we can learn these blue stars are type B star or type O star, then based on analytical cosmology theory ,and we can learn they are main sequence star, and then based on the mathematical analysis of Zhou Jian diagram we will eventually be informed of these stars, as the brightness range within the range of 22 to 28.3. Perhaps we do not believe this is true, but the Hubble and other telescopes equipment it careful observation to verify whether their apparent brightness in this brightness range.

    Limited comparison, similar to the Milky Way galaxy in plotted on the star map. In fact, from which we will be able to find differences in normal galaxy we live in the dwarf galaxies of UGC 5 497. From the point of view of their size, the size of the dwarf galaxies of UGC 5 497 is just one tenth of the Milky Way size so large, but their brightness point of view, four times the births of the absolute brightness of dwarf galaxies of UGC 5497 is only the Milky Way galaxy absolute brightness so bright.

    My friends, these are the analytical cosmology for us brought us to the European space agency NASA/of the Hubble space telescope to capture the dwarf galaxies of UGC 5 497 of further understanding, it condenses in this picture Numbers for ZhouJian 2012056 mathematical analysis of the map, it condenses in this picture of the dwarf galaxies of UGC 5 497 called the mathematical analysis of the map, it condenses in Zhou Jian the ordinary Chinese heart, it condenses in us the minds of the Chinese people, it condenses in our earth in the heart of the people, and, in the end, it will bring together in our earth person become able to in the deep space truly free flying of the universe (namely we often say that aliens) of evolution of history.
     

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    That's more than a billion year from now on. Lol
     

  9. #8 Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012057 to meet the black hole in the center of a galaxy growth challenge 
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    Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012057 to meet the black hole in the center of a galaxy growth challenge
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 14, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)
    (广西柳州市柳北区柳长路611号 545012 13237720248@163.com
    The universe is like this, when you simply to observation it, all the guess may,and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to study it again after, all of that guess don't exist.

    Astronomers long have thought that a supermassive black hole and the bulge of stars at the center of its host galaxy grow at the same rate -- the bigger the bulge, the bigger the black hole.
    However, from the U.S. space agency (NASA)'s official website 2012.6.11 news reports, a new study of Chandra data has revealed two nearby galaxies with supermassive black holes that are growing faster than the galaxies themselves,in the nearby two galaxy NGC 4342 and NGC 4291 exceptions. This is a serious challenge! Challenge! But! But! Born on March 8, 2009 on Chinese soil analytical cosmology can meet this challenge, we are told in the end this is why! Why!

    Look! No. Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012057 is to meet this challenge by drawing, I call it the galaxies NGC 4342 and NGC 4 291 Mathematical Analysis Star Chart. It is the composite images, X-rays from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory are colored blue, infrared data from the 2MASS project are seen in red, and the Zhou Jian diagram from the analytical cosmology (29 June 2009 was born in Chinese), combined into a Zhou Jian Star Chart, the observed data will draw in the picture, like to draw the geometry plot, and by observing the intuitive mathematical analysis, will ultimately mathematical analysis of the results indicated in the figure. Of course, all this has a rigorous mathematical formula, but the arithmetic is very complex, but not as good as the star map so simple and clear expression.

    In order to understand the problem of black holes in galaxies of NGC 4342 and NGC 4291, we must first know the characteristics of their size, actual observations only their angular size, their size, we do not know. But analytical cosmology given a calculation of the Zhou Jian function of the galaxy size, from this galaxy the size of the problem we solved mathematical analysis by Zhou Jian Star Chart.

    L ook! Piece of Zhou Jian star chart 2012057 tells us that the size of the galaxy NGC 4342 (left image) D is 41,000 light-years, while the galaxy NGC 4291 (right image), the size of D is 104 000 light-years. Ha ha, now we know that the right of the galaxy (NGC 4 291) and we live in the Milky Way is almost the same size, and that the left side of the galaxy (NGC 4342) the Milky Way has just two fifths so much.

    When we know that these two galaxies the size of the black hole problem solved. Black hole, in short, is a gravitational force strong objects, and even light can not escape.In theory, when the Schwarzschild radius of the star, to a certain extent, even the vertical surface-emitting light can not escape, and this is the black hole of stellar magnitude. However, analytical cosmology tells us that from the angle of observation that the evolution of the whole of the stars is quite complex, but no matter how complex it strictly follow the evolution of the cyclical nature (in the star chart with the stellar evolution from the circle to represent the star's own evolution cycle law is discussed in detail to see released on October 4, 2011 entitled "stellar evolution of the whole process of the observational characteristics of Bowen, Bowen address: http://blog.tech110....ce-itemid-61342). Thus, the stellar magnitude of the black hole in the universe, the only natural environment is not the case.

    Even if the black hole of stellar magnitude does not exist, that the black hole of the super stars of magnitude should exist, in fact, the magnitude of the super stars black holes do not exist.Why?Long story, a detailed discussion see October 6, 2011, entitled "discovered that the universe is accelerating the evolution of globular clusters of the expansion to help process the observational characteristics appear - to pay tribute to the winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics" Bowen, Bowen address:http://blog.tech110.net/index.php?ui...-61362).

    Why are there to uplift the bulge that the center of the galaxy? What is its center? Is not the density of the supreme black hole?Yes!Why? Long story, discussed in detail to see released on October 7, 2011 entitled "galaxy evolution diagram of the observational characteristics of the birth from the cosmic acceleration - pay tribute to the winner of the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics" Bowen, Bowen address:http://blog.tech110.net/index.php?uid-9305-action-viewspace-itemid-61380.

    Oh, is too complicated, but no matter how complex the galaxies within the cosmogonic always change, but in any case change as conditions change, they are regularly to be found are single stellar evolutionextension of evolution law of the environment in which the universe fills the final result of all this evolution are the material existence of the mutual conversion under certain conditions, the behaviors demonstrated by nuclear fusion and nuclear fission, the two main forms, whichkinds of nuclear reaction energy release arising from the outbreak of the results is a gravitation is exactly the opposite centrifugal force, and everything in the universe of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, etc. this is the energy release of nuclear reactions produced by the centrifugal force and gravitation balance of material existenceform of the galaxy's central black hole is nothing more than numerous stellar evolution to achieve in a very strong nebula of a nuclear reaction energy release produced by the centrifugal force and gravitation balance a state, like the sun on which we depend to survive, this is ourWhy can the observed universe is homogeneous and isotropic reasons, because the universe as a whole, it is nothing more than a variety of physical effects and balance the body, which in the past is so balanced, it is now such a balance in the future even more sobalanced, the universe as a unique natural as a whole will always be a balanced body, it does not exist the problem of sickness and death, but all the material in a form but always interchangeable under certain conditions, the conversion processthe problems of illness and death.

    Haha, I today finally black hole is what explanation out, it is nothing more than the stars created by the special environment of the universe together evolution of the material in a form to achieve a balanced state, but in any case are not we over the past century has been thatkinds of high-density body. At this point, we observed galaxy of NGC 4 342 and NGC 4291 black hole it is easy to understand.

    From the star map, we were able to see these two galaxies are toward our movement from the left of the image of the galaxy (NGC 4 342) or 900 km / s depending on the speed towards us bolted from, converted intoper hour speed is 3.24 million km from Earth to the Moon in just seven minutes. Of course, we are currently recognized by the Big Bang theory of the universe to understand, it is 739km / s depending on departure from the speed of our expansion away, because we observed its redshift is 0.002468, will it all be understood as more than Doppler redshift Doppler effect is the case, and the farther shown by the expansion of the faster, but only 10 million light years of NGC 4291 than that of NGC 4342 is far, why the expansion speed of 1777km / s it?Expansion faster than of NGC 4342 has nearly doubled, but it is far distance only 0.1 times, inflated out of proportion it is true, of course, we can also guess that they are variable-speed expansion, the universe is accelerating expansion of the observable facts, notobserved (1998), but this disproportionate expansion of the universe still exists, in any case, we can give what a reasonable explanation.
     

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    Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012065 found that the IC 2574 is a pure Doppler blue shift deviation of dwarf galaxies
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 18, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)

    The universe is like this, when you simply to observation it, all the guess may,and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to study it again after, all of that guess don't exist.



    NASA/APOD web site 2012.6.22 IC 2574: Coddington's the Nebula.
    In fact, this nebula is a dwarf galaxy, based on the NASA / IPAC EXTRAGALACTIC DATABASE verify its apparent brightness of mv is equal to 10.36,and redshift is equal to 0.000190, and maximum distance of six kinds of the Hubble flow distance (the Virgo + GA + the Shapley) 10,632,898 light-years, and the minimum distance (3K CMB) is 6,621,099 light-years, and the average distance is 9,007,522 light-years. 13 professional research report gives the maximum distance is 17,514,927 light-years, and the minimum distance is 8,806,388 light-years, and the average distance is 12,482,240 light-years. This is the caption said the dwarf galaxy IC 5 874 a distance of only 12 million light-years.

    When we will be currently informed of these observational data plotted in the figure of Zhou Jian will find (see Zhou Jian Star Chart 2,012,065, the dwarf galaxy IC 2574 the mathematical analysis of the star map), you will find! Will find the actual observations of the dwarf galaxy IC 2574's distance relative to the analytical cosmology given standard distance deviation Doppler blue shift of bias, it is a 100% towards our movement dwarf galaxies.

    We now take a look at the status of the dwarf galaxies observed in the course of the campaign. To keep things simple, here only consider it as the state of motion not to consider its own state of motion. To make the mathematical analysis of the star maps comparable, we use the average value of the Hubble flow distance for motion analysis.

    The dwarf galaxy IC 2574 in the average value of the Hubble flow distance (9,007,522 light-years) the distance condition, Zhou Jian redshift zz is 0.000654, and the Doppler redshift zd -0.000464 observation redshift zg is still 0.000190. Since the Doppler redshift is negative, it is the Doppler blue shift, toward our Mercedes-Benz from the Mercedes-Benz from the speed of 139.214km / s.

    139.214km / s, toward our movement, the radial velocity as the basis of the mathematical analysis will find that the dwarf galaxy IC 2574 in 10 million years ago in comparison with our observation status, depending on the brightness of mv = 10.469 mag, than it is now dark 0.109 mag, and Zhou Jian redshift zz = 0.000688, which shifted more than it is now 0.000034, the corresponding distance is 9,471,906 light-years, an increase of 464,384 light-years) than the distance now, we have observed redshift is 0.000224, which shifted more than it is now 0.000034. However, in one billion years later, how the observation status? State at that time, we have observed is that the apparent brightness of mv = 10.245 mag and so on, brighter than it is now 0.115 mag, and Zhou Jian redshift zz = 0.000621, less red shift than it is now 0.000034, the corresponding distance is 8,543,138 light-years, less than the distance now, we observed redshift is 0.000156, less red shift than it is now 0.000034.

    Of course, we can also use the Big Bang cosmological theory to analyze. Since the big bang cosmology, the expansion velocity is related to the distance To keep things simple, we present expansion rate as a benchmark for analysis, which can be informed of the dwarf galaxy IC 2574 relative speed of our expansion in 1 billion years ago 181.891km / s, corresponding to the distance is 8,353,237 light-years, both the expansion of the universe divided by 71.021532km/s/Mpc, however, in 1 billion years later is 210.395km / s, the corresponding distance is 9,661,806 light-years, both divided by the universe expansion rate is 71.024905km/s/Mpc, the expansion speed of 196.142km / s, the corresponding distance is 9,007,522 light-years, both divided by the cosmic expansion rate is 71.023219km/s/Mpc.

    Thus, the distance is different, they correspond to the cosmic expansion rate, which is the real reason that we applied to the Hubble's law Hubble constant is always unpredictable, we still do not understand, as long as we choose a different galaxy samples to study the rate of expansion of the universe, we always understand why the Hubble constant, resulting Hubble constant, we find that they change, and finally all fall on a fluctuation range 50-100km/s/Mpc, even if accurate to how much it is relatively selected galaxy sample results, and countless professional research reports can not escape from such a wavelength range.

    Seriously, nearly years of observation results, and many of the professional research report that the Hubble constant is a changeable constant, why do we have to regard it as constant? Mountain heavy water complex has a silver lining. We change a kind of thinking to think, that the magic of "yi" word will become more the magic of "and" word, in astronomy and cosmology research, we will be able to usher in a new sunny days! Sunny days! Sunny days!

    Look! Based on 1998 found that the universe is accelerating expansion of the observed phenomena, the conversion of research ideas, light (electromagnetic radiation) in the dissemination of the transmission wavelength with increasing propagation distance and the law of displacement to the red end of the Zhou Jian’s law (or Zhou Jian effect), not on June 29, 2008 was officially discovered!

    Look! Is also converted about research ideas, we direct application of the Zhou Jian’s law, without using any assumptions about the middle of, you know, do not use any assumptions, analytical cosmology using the algebraic method (analytical method) to solve the problems of the universe, not in 2009 March 8, and thus was born!

    Continue to look! The change my the research idea, welcome the new space research method of the Chinese people, he is, he is...... He is living in 611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China Zhou Jian(周坚)! Zhou Jian! Zhou Jian! He is proud of his discovery. He is proud of his found! For this, he loudly shout out: I found! I found...... !I found Zhou Jian’s law! I found Zhou Jian effect! I created the analytical cosmology! I created the analytical cosmology! Analytical cosmology! Analytical cosmology! Analytical cosmology...... !...... !

    Notes: In a few days to June 29, that is the formal discovery of the Zhou Jian’s law ushered in the four years of age that memorable day. The past four years, through the direct application of the author persistent, it has been from the original called Zhou Jian redshift law of perfect to Zhou Jian’s law, completed on March 8, 2009 monograph Analytical cosmology (copyright registration number 2009 - a-020 687) also received an unprecedented perfect, at this moment, I really excited about this show oneself up, let the author he shouted it, ladies and gentlemen please him to understanding.
     

  11. #10 Zhou Jian's Law :To celebrate the 4st anniversary 
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    Zhou Jian's Law :To celebrate the 4st anniversary
    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 29, 2012

    Hey, really is the translation I do not come out for the celebration Zhou Jian’s law found that the fourth anniversary of the only original Chinese offer, add you to my foreign friends in trouble, really sorry.

    [Core Tip] four years ago today, 611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China - Zhou Jian, he created a miracle, he is extremely sensitive to his insight, based on 1998years the two groups found that the universe is accelerating expansion of the supernova Hubble diagram, further in-depth study, which found a Zhou Jian’s law. The past four years, the Zhou Jian’s law has been improved a lot, to celebrate the discovery of the fourth anniversary of the Zhou Jian’s law, he will be perfect detail to make a report, in any case, this is an unprecedented no historical discoveries.

    周坚定律:庆祝发现四周年
    文/周坚/2012年6月29日

    【核心提示】四年前的今天,家住中国南疆的广西柳州市柳北区柳长路611号的市民——周坚,他创造了一个奇 迹,他以他那极其敏锐的洞察力,基于1998年的两个小组发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的那个超新星哈勃图,通过进 一步的深入研究,从中发现了周坚定律。四年来,周坚定律已经完善了许多,为庆祝发现周坚定律四周年,他将它 的完善情况详细地向大家做个汇报,无论如何,这是一个前无古人后无来者的历史性发现,这是我们土生土长普通 中国人的创新性发现。

    一:简介

    2008年6月29日,周坚基于大爆炸宇宙学理论完成了一部《精确膨胀宇宙学》个人专著,它标志着光(电磁 辐射)在传播过程中的传播距离与周坚红移成正比,与周坚红移加1的和成反比的自然规律被正式发 现。

    周坚定律(Zhou Jian's Law)反映出来的物理意义是光(电磁辐射)在传播过程中的传输波长随传播距离增大而有规律地向红端位移, 说明来自遥远星系光线的红移不仅存在多普勒红移,而且还存在周坚红移。

    在宇宙学研究中,周坚定律成为用代数方法(解析法)来解决宇宙问题的《解析宇宙学》(著作权登记号:200 9-A-020687)的理论基础,周坚红移——距离的一一对应关系能够让我们通过观测星系的红移来确定它的相对距 离。
    在宇宙力学研究中,周坚定律在力学中的直接应用推演出周坚万有引力定律,它标志着星系之间相互吸引的万有引 力与光(电磁辐射)的传播特征有关,万有引力与周坚红移关系能够让我们通过观测星系的红移来确定它们之间的 相互吸引力。周坚万有引力定律是解决宇宙力学问题的宇宙力学或宇宙动力学的理论基础,而当距离很小的时候, 用周坚红移表达的万有引力就与用距离表达的万有引力在数值上高度一致,即牛顿万有引力定律与周坚万有引力定 律所表达的万有引力特征完全一致。

    二:定义

    光(电磁辐射)在传播过程中的传播距离与周坚红移成正比,与周坚红移加1的和成反比。这个周坚红移——传播 距离关系在2008年由中国天文学家周坚发现,称为周坚定律或周坚效应。在宇宙学研究中,周坚定律成为应用 代数方法(解析法)来解决宇宙问题的解析宇宙学的理论基础。但在实际观测中,星系的红移不仅包含周坚红移, 而且还包含多普勒红移,这为我们精确确定星系距离带来一些困难,不过我们能够通过先忽略多普勒红移,即将观 测到的星系红移全部视作周坚红移来精确确定一个称之为标准距离的距离,然后再考虑多普勒红移的实际影响,星 系的真实距离就在这个标准距离的附近,它的距离由此就被推算出来。

    三:发现


    图1 探索中的周坚定律发现者

    1998年,美国劳伦斯柏克莱国家实验室(Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)进行的超新星宇宙学计划(Supernova Cosmology Project)与澳大利亚 Mount Stromlo 天文台的高红移超新星搜寻团队(High-Z Supernova Search Team)利用不同的分析技术和不同的高红移超新星观测样本,却都获得“宇宙正在加速膨胀而非减速”的结论 。此前,宇宙学家们一直预期宇宙是在减速膨胀。这是在现代宇宙学中最重要的发现之一。图2是他们发现宇宙正 在加速膨胀的超新星哈勃图。图中显示与Ia超新星分布最佳吻合的理论曲线是在(FRW)标准宇宙学模型下的 模型参数ΩM=0.28、ΩΛ=0.72的理论曲线。


    图2 发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的超新星哈勃图[Riess et al. 1998, Perlmutter et al. 1999]

    在图2所示的Perlmutter 等人1998年发表的发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的超新星哈勃图中,与高红移Ia超新星分布最佳吻合的模型参数Ω M=0.28、ΩΛ=0.72的理论曲线所对应的关系式是相当复杂的,这种在(FRW)标准宇宙学模型下的 相当复杂的星等与红移关系式是否能够用一个简单关系式来取代呢?周坚大胆提出一个非常简单的星等与红移关系 式是:

    (1)

    其中,α和β都是待确定的常数,它们的单位都是/Mpc(每兆秒差距)。
    在这个非常简单的星等与红移关系式(1)中,周坚发现对α和β这两个待确定的常数进行调整会使它的理论曲线 随调整而发生变化,随着不断的调整尝试进一步发现,当α和β这两个待确定的常数调整到恰到好处的时候,它的 理论曲线会恰到好处地与高红移Ia超新星分布最佳吻合的模型参数ΩM=0.28、ΩΛ=0.72的理论曲线 靠拢,当将α调整到0.00023683050759/Mpc,β调整到0.00128/Mpc的情况下,关系式(1)的理论曲线就与高红移Ia超新星分布最佳吻合的模型参数ΩM=0.28、ΩΛ =0.72的理论曲线吻合。图3就是吻合结果图。


    图3 周坚拟合的超新星哈勃图

    仔细观察这个非常简单的星等与红移关系式(1)发现,在其中存在一个公共关系项z/α(1+z),这个不仅与红移z成正比,而且还与红移加1的和(z+1)成反比的公共关系项的物理学意义是 什么呢?依据距离模数定义式的物理意义,它就是距离,这个距离不仅与红移z成正比,而且还与红移加1的和( z+1)成反比,这就是周坚发现的Perlmutter 等人1998年发表发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的距离与红移的关系式:

    (2)

    其中,r是单位为Mpc的距离,z是与宇宙大尺度有关的红移,α是红移常数,即α=0.000236830 50759 /Mpc。图4是发现周坚定律的超新星哈勃图


    图4 发现周坚定律的超新星哈勃图

    四:公式

    周坚定律(Zhou Jian's Law):

    参数说明:
    r:光(电磁辐射)传播的距离(Light (Electromagnetic Radiation) Propagation Distance) 单位:ly(光年)
    Z0:周坚常数(Zhou Jian's Constant),即Z0=13,771,980,862.5685 ly(光年),其物理意义是光(电磁辐射)传播的极限传播距离,说明任何光(电磁辐射)的传播都不可能无休 止地传播到无限远。
    zz:周坚红移(Zhou Jian's Redshift),其物理意义是光(电磁辐射)在传播过程中的传输波长随传播距离增大而有规律地向红端位 移的相对变化量。

    五:关系

    周坚定律只与星系的两个参数有关,即光(电磁辐射)传播的距离r和周坚红移zz,只要能够确定其一,就能获 知其二。

    在实际观测中,我们确实能够直接观测到星系的红移,但在这个直接观测到的红移当中存在两种产生机制完全不同 的红移,即由多普勒效应产生的多普勒红移和由周坚效应产生的周坚红移(在特殊宇宙环境中还存在引力红移,这 是特殊天体如中子星等天体才明显显现的红移,为使宇宙问题简单化,在一般情况下我们可以忽略不计),为了区 分这两种红移,我们用加脚注“d”和“z”来区分由多普勒效应引起的多普勒红移zd和由周坚效应引起的周坚 红移zz,而我们所观测到的红移就用加脚注“g”的方法来表示,称之为观测红移zg,它们之间的关系式就是 zg=zz+zd。由于周坚红移可以达到无穷大,因此,在宇宙中我们能够观测到非常大的红移,从理论上讲, 我们能够观测到无穷大的红移。当我们将观测红移zg全部视作由多普勒效应引起的多普勒红移zd来研究宇宙的 时候,由此就出现了大爆炸宇宙学,然而,当我们将观测红移zg全部视作由周坚效应引起的周坚红移zz来研究 宇宙的时候,由此就出现了一个精确确定星系距离的标准距离,当我们同时考虑这两种红移的时候,解析宇宙学就 由此出现了。

    在实际观测中,距离的观测是最关键的。由于星系的距离极为遥远,三角视差法对此已经失效,并且还存由天体相 对运动所带来的系统性误差,这是我们无法通过自身努力来克服的误差,因此我们必须另辟蹊径。

    在发现周坚定律的简单距离模数定义式中,我们发现距离模数与距离存在直接的对应关系,只要我们确定了距离模 数,星系的距离就由此确定。在距离模数中只有两个参数,即视星等mv和绝对星等Mv,而视星等mv是我们能 够通过望远镜等观测设备进行直接观测而确定的值,现在的关键是如何精确确定它们的绝对星等值。

    对于恒星来说,我们研究的非常透彻,通过直接观测恒星的光谱就能通过赫罗图获知它们的绝对星等,由此就获得 恒星的距离。
    对于星系来说,我们能够通过直接观测获得星系的红移,为了使问题简单化,我们可以先不考虑星系相对我们(观 测者)相对运动因素的影响,将所观测到的星系红移全部视作周坚红移,由此依据周坚定律的直接计算获得一个称 之为标准距离的参照距离,之后再考虑相对运动因素的影响来获得星系的真实距离。

    为了使上述对应关系能够直接的一目了然的反映出来,我们依据发现周坚定律的简单距离模数定义式绘制出一幅视 星等——周坚红移关系图(以周坚红移为基准的关系图)或视星等——距离关系图(以距离为基准的关系图),它 们统称为周坚图,图中的纵坐标表示天体亮度的视星等,横坐标表示相对观测者对恒星、星系等天体进行观测的距 离以及一一对应的周坚红移,而图中的无数条曲线是一一对应的表示恒星、星系等天体绝对亮度的等绝对星等线, 它们之间保持5等的间隔,其中带颜色的各类等绝对星等线是具有特定意义的等绝对星等线,而正是这些带颜色的 具有特定意义的等绝对星等线被画出,才赋予这种周坚图具有参照观看恒星、星系等等天体的观测特征和演化特征 的功能,成为研究恒星、星系等等天体以及整个宇宙这个唯一客观存在体的观测特征和演化特征的重要工具,它类 似赫罗图的分析恒星演化的功能,由此为我们带来了研究宇宙的一个名副其实的数理分析工具。图5就是一幅完整 的周坚图,当我们将星系等天体的直接观测参数,比如视星等、红移或光谱类型(恒星),包括它们的影像等信息 ,按照对应关系绘制在周坚图中就构成了具有数理分析功能的数理分析星图,我们就将它称之为周坚星图,它不仅 能够告诉我们星系等天体的过去、现在和将来的一切宇宙信息,包括它们的演化信息,而且还能够让我们分辨出它 们的各种微小特征的变化和区别。其实,在解析宇宙学中还有许多这样的应用图,只是这种被发现者命名为周坚图 的应用图目前是最适用的一种,它有点像赫罗图分析恒星及其演化特征一样,能够对恒星、星系等等天体的观测现 状和演化进程进行有理有据的数理分析,是一个名副其实的天体数理分析工具。


    上图是以距离为基准绘制 下图是以周坚红移为基准绘制
    图5 完整的周坚图

    六:物理意义

    利用周坚定律r= Z0 zz/(1+zz),我们就能够从周坚红移得出光(电磁辐射)到达我们(观测者)面前所传播的距离,即便周坚红移 达到无限大也是如此,这就是被观测天体到我们(观测者)之间的距离,而与我们(观测者)在宇宙中的具体空间 位置没有任何关系,我们(观测者)所观测到的宇宙就是宇宙中的无数天体所辐射出来的光(电磁辐射)传播到我 们(观测者)面前的综合反映,我们地球人是以地球为观测背景来观测宇宙从整体上来讲是这样,其它星球上的观 测者以它们自己所居住的星球为观测背景来观测宇宙从整体上来讲同样也是这样,这就意味着,在空间中任意一点 ,以及从任意一点位置上的任一方向来进行观察的话,宇宙的大尺度景象是没有任何区别的;而且对宇宙中各处的 观测者来说,他们所观察到的物理量和物理规律完全相同,没有任何一个观测者会处于与众不同的特殊地位,光( 电磁辐射)向任何方向传播的传播距离都是有限的,这个有限的数值就是周坚常数(Zhou Jian's Constant)Z0,它等于13,771,980,862.5685 ly(光年),而光(电磁辐射)以光速完成这个极限距离的传播所用时间正好是13,771,980,862 .5685年(137.7亿年)。


    七:观测证据
     

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    七:观测证据

    2003年,美国发射的威尔金森微波各向异性探测器(WMAP)经过当年的观测数据显示,宇宙的年龄是13 7±2亿年,这就是我们今天经常被援引作为支持大爆炸宇宙学的一个宇宙开端的重要证据,其实,它真正反映出 来的物理意义就是光(电磁辐射)完成极限传播距离的时刻间隔,这个时刻间隔就是13,771,980,86 2.5685年(137.7亿年),WMAP的观测结果137±2亿年在误差范围内与之完全吻合,而在这个 时刻间隔内光(电磁辐射)以光速所完成的传播距离就是13,771,980,862.5685光年(137 .7亿光年),这就是周坚定律中的那个周坚常数Z0=13,771,980,862.5685光年,这就是 说WMAP的观测结果其实就是周坚定律的直接观测证据。

    从周坚定律的发现过程来看,周坚定律中的周坚常数来源于1998年发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的超新 星哈勃图[Riess et al. 1998, Perlmutter et al. 1999],标准宇宙学模型能够给出一个与高红移Ia超新星分布最佳吻合的理论曲线,周坚定律同样也能给出这样一个与 之最佳吻合的理论曲线。至此,1998年发现宇宙正在加速膨胀的超新星哈勃图与2003年发射的WMAP多 年来的观测数据,通过周坚定律这个“桥梁”就这样紧密地联系在一起,它们共同成为了周坚定律的直接观测证据 。


    图6 “斯必泽”(Spitzer)和“哈勃”(Hubble)联手合作拍摄的遥远大质量星系的照片。
    (照片转自天文科普网:http://www.tianwentai.org/shenkong/x...5.html)

    我们再来看一个让天文学家大吃一惊的观测现象吧。在图6影像中,用圆圈标出的就是一个星系,偏下方的较大星 系是距离较近的前景星系。右上是哈勃拍摄的可见光照片,左下是哈勃拍摄的近红外照片,右下是斯必泽拍摄的红 外照片。星系在可见光中并不明显,表明它的距离是遥远的,而在红外光中异常明亮,表明它的质量相当巨大。左 上图是各波段合成的假彩色照片。我们的标准宇宙学理论不是认为宇宙中最早的星系,通常是小得多的恒星集合, 它们逐渐并合,最终才能形成类似于我们银河系的演化程度相当充分的大星系吗,为什么我们的观测结果却不是这 样,这不得不让天文学家们大吃一惊。然而,在以周坚定律为理论基础的解析宇宙学中,在我们的周坚图中,我们 一眼就能看出这是为什么?只要将这种观测现象的直接观测数据绘制在周坚图上,我们就能够发现,哦!原来是这 样!原来是这样!

    其实,周坚定律的直接观测证据还有很多很多,自2010年1月1日推出的历时两年多的探索性系列应用博文— —周坚每日解读一天文图,以及今年3月23日正式绘制的一系列周坚星图,它们所反映出来的宇宙情景都是周坚 定律的直接应用结果,中间没有使用任何假设,周坚定律就这样像架设在超新星、宇宙微波背景辐射以及一切的宇 宙观测现象之间的“桥梁”,已经将它们统统给串联起来,它们直接或间接地都成为了周坚定律的最直接的观测证 据。比如,在今年4月21日发布的编号为周坚星图2012025的数量分析星图中,我们将哈勃太空望远镜的 极限观测视星等(28.5等)绘制到周坚图中,通过数理分析发现,在太阳附近1万光年(精确值 是10 315光年)距离范围内,那种神秘的即看不见又莫不着的,只能间接检测它施加引力才能发现的所谓暗物质是不 存在的,这是解析宇宙学以哈勃太空望远镜的极限观测状态为基准所获得的理论结果,然而,由智利天文学家团队 进行的最新研究确实发现(详见图7专业PDF中的插图),也是迄今为止对银河系恒星运动的最精确观测显示, 在太阳系周围的广大区域内,几乎没有暗物质的踪迹。


    图7专业PDF中的插图,说明暗物质的统计面密度。横坐标:千秒差距,纵坐标:每平方秒差距(约10平方光 年)多少太阳质量。下方的黑实线表示观测、计算到的物质总量,而点线、虚线分布表示1个、3个标准方差下的 误差范围。几条灰色线中,最下面与实线几乎重合的是可视普通物质量;min代表理论预期的最小量;而OM、 SHM、N97分别是不同模型计算的暗物质量。插图简单表明,太阳系周围几乎就不存在暗物质。(翻译来自中 国科学院上海天文台6月26日译文快递:暗物质理论遭遇挑战?)


    周坚定律的观测证据实在是太多太多了,我们不妨反向思考一下,作为一种反例,不妨这样想象一下,若这个周坚 定律确实不是一个自然规律,那它为什么就能够这样将我们所观测到的无数宇宙奇景都统统给串联起来呢?要知道 ,发现近百年的大爆炸宇宙学至今仍然搞不清楚宇宙为什么会爆炸,更搞不清楚它怎么还要暴涨,当然我们现在有 无数的理论猜测,但无论怎样猜测都是建立在假设基础之上,终极的假设就是假设宇宙诞生于一个密度无限高,温 度无限大的“奇点”,好奇怪的宇宙“奇点”呀,到现在我们都不知道它是如何被孕育出来的,它的前身到底是什 么我们根本就无从知晓,因为它竟然不需要有孕育它的空间,难以想象呀,宇宙空间竟然是因为它,这么一个小不 点的“奇点”爆炸产生的,不仅如此,这个小不点的“奇点”爆炸还具有特别的形式,那就是它不仅能够爆炸,而 且还要暴涨,它是通过暴涨的爆炸形式来迅速抹平宇宙的。总之,宇宙爆炸的前后137亿年的宇宙,从整体上来 看,它绝对不是相同的宇宙,它在膨胀,它在加速膨胀,它在某个时期还出现过暴涨,在不同宇宙时期的观测者所 观测到的宇宙是不一样的,将来我们所观测到的宇宙竟然是一种“冰”的宇宙,是“寂寞死”的宇宙,解析宇宙学 的提出者想请问一下大爆炸宇宙学的提出者和维护者,宇宙学原理你们是否忘记了,忘记了……。要知道,宇宙学 原理是检验一种宇宙学理论的最基本的准则,它告诉我们,在宇宙学尺度上,任何时刻,三维空间是均匀的和各向 同性的,整个宇宙在不同时刻也是完全相同的。

    八:宇宙的观测

    其实,在宇宙观测中,宇宙作为一个整体都是通过光(电磁辐射)的传播特征,即光(电磁辐射)的极限传播速度 ——光速c和极限传播距离——周坚常数Z0反映到我们观测者面前的。

    相对观测者而言,观测者只能观测到以观测者自己为球心的一个球半径为周坚常数Z0的宇宙球形体,只能感受相 对观测者自己小于周坚常数Z0的有限宇宙球形体之内的所有天体所辐射出来的光(电磁辐射),而对于这个宇宙 球形体之外的天体辐射出来的光(电磁辐射),观测者是不可能直接观测到的,如果要观测到它们,那就只能通过 运动向它们靠拢(或它们向我们观测者运动靠拢),使其距离小于周坚常数Z0来感受了,这就好比我们在浓雾中 观察世界一样,我们只能看到以我们自己为中心的一个圆半径为能见度以内的有限世界,而为了看到能见度以外的 世界,我们就必须运动,在运动中使能见度以外的世界不断进入能见度以内来观察。

    当然了,在宇宙中运动,我们不可能像在浓雾中运动那么容易,我们必须学会建造宇宙飞船,我们必须学会飞船与 飞船的交会对接,不仅如此,我们还得学会如何在宇宙深空中安全的自由飞翔,除此之外,我们还得学会看星星, 看星系,而看星星和看星系可不是因为它们好看,而是要一眼就能看出它们到我们之间的距离,距离 !距离!

    或许我们不相信我们有一眼知星距的能力,但周坚定律就是为了让我们具有一眼知星距的能力而发现的,解析宇宙 学就是为了让我们学会一眼知星距而诞生的。4百多年前的意大利科学家伽利略发明望远镜,让我们知道如何观看 我们的宇宙,而4百多年后的中国科学家周坚发现周坚定律,并创立解析宇宙学,让我们知道如何测量我们的宇宙 。
     

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    Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012071:for the Hubble found the giant arc IDCS J1426.5 + 3508 pulse

    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 18, 2012

    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)




    Seeing is believing, Hubble discovered that the giant arc IDCS, J1426.5 +3508 in the vicinity of 10 billion light years analytical cosmological observation status.
     

  14. #13 Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012071:for the Hubble found the giant arc IDCS J1426.5 + 3508 pulse 
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    Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012071:for the Hubble found the giant arc IDCS J1426.5 + 3508 pulse

    Picture / Zhou Jian (周坚)/ June 18, 2012

    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)




    Seeing is believing, Hubble discovered that the giant arc IDCS, J1426.5 +3508 in the vicinity of 10 billion light years analytical cosmological observation status.
     

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    This thread is really nothing but a monologue in chinese.
    pyoko likes this.
     

  16. #15 Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012072 Verify Hubble's Discovery Of The Giant Arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508 
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    Zhou Jian Star Chart 2012072 Verify Hubble's Discovery Of The Giant Arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508
    Photo / Zhou Jian / July 1, 2012
    (611, Liuchang road, Liu Bei district , Liuzhou city , Guang Xi ,China 545012 E-mail:13237720248@163.com)

    The universe is like this, when you simply to observation it, all the guess may,and when you have mastered the mathematical analysis method to study it again after, all of that guess don't exist.



    Seeing is believing, seeing is believing it! Yesterday forecast giant arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508 mathematical analysis of the star map is drawn, see Hubble discovered this giant arc of celestial bodies direct observational data (see astrobites / astro-ph reader's Digest), I am so happy pleased quickly these direct observations of the Hubble immediately drawn to Zhou Jian star chart, and which is the site called the origin of the Zhou Jian star chart 2012072, and named for the mathematical analysis star chart of the Hubble giant arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508.

    Piece of star map is based on Zhou Jian star chart 2012071, and Based on the analytical cosmological state in the nearby region of 10 billion light years, and then the Hubble found that the direct observations of giant arcs IDCS J1426.5 +3508 draw up the mathematical analysis of the formation of star maps.

    Zhou Jian diagram is drawn by apparent magnitude observed by the optical system as a benchmark, so the infrared observational data of mathematical analysis, there are some systematic observation errors, but the standard distance is absolutely accurate, this giant arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508interpret the experience to judge it in the standard distance of 8,763,987,822 ly (87.6 billion light years away) near the error will never exceed 3%, in accordance with the author, this error should be about 1%.

    Of course, we can also Hubble discovered that the giant arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508 observational data to understand the theory of Big Bang cosmology, that is, it is about 230,000km / s depending on the speed departure from our inflated away, this isabout 77% of the speed of light in the expansion.

    In fact, we all know that motion is relative. Observer of the observer in motion the train up observation on the ground, and the observer on the ground to observe the train in motion on the observer, the movement observed results were the same, of course, these two The observer Earth observation background.

    Similarly, the universe observation is also true, but the background of our observations from the Earth into a complete universe as a whole. The relative Hubble discovered this giant arc IDCS J1426.5 +3508 celestial bodies, if it really is 77% the speed of light relative to our movement, flew away, it is the "train" in the high-speed movement, And we are the observers of the "station" in the universe.

    Unfortunately, this also expansion of the universe, like our planet in the expansion, we train there is no motion, but the global expansion. This is in the observation of the universe in a "camouflage", and big bang cosmology is nothing more than to "camouflage" paint vivid nothing, and allows us to see such a beautiful flawless universe, spectacular,,and we did not even know that this is similar to the mirage that we see at the beach on the magnificent landscape, and it sooner or later to disappear.

    This is why the big bang cosmology tells us the future of the universe, and it will eventually become the "ice" and "lonely death" to, and we just happen to exist in bale, this is the detonation of the "singularity", and it soared to quickly erase the mercy of the god of the universe given to us by grace.
     

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    Zhou jian,
    This is a discussion forum, not a blog. Thread closed.
     

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