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Important Report on the Dark Energy and Gravitational Potential Energy

[Abstract]

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and gravitational potential energy (GPE).

In this paper, it is being shown that the universe can be created and expanded through pair creation of positive energy (mass) and negative energy (mass) from zero energy condition.

Also, GPE is composed by 3 units of , , and when negative and positive energy exists, (GPE between negative mass and positive mass) has positive values and is the component that makes repulsive gravitational effect. corresponds with the inner energy of the system and can be interpreted as dark energy.

Also, situations in which has much higher value than depending on the distribution of negative mass and positive mass is possible.

This doesn't mean that 72.1% of dark energy independently exists, but means that explanation from GPE occurring from 4.6%(or 27.9%) of negative energy, which is the same as 4.6%(or include dark matter 27.9%) of positive energy, is possible. Moreover, 4.6%(or 27.9%) of negative energy is the energy which is inevitably required from zero energy, which is the most natural total energy value in the universe.

This discovery implies that our belief that size of gravity and size of components of the universe would always 1:1 correspond was wrong.

I. Introduction

Gravity is the force conquering the structure of the universe. By recognizing the components of the universe, we are estimating the quantity of components composing the universe through size of gravity and GPE.

In estimating some kind of unknown energy quantity of universe components, gravity has been a crucial part. For example, if the universe is composed of some materials and these materials are always moving in equal velocity, unknown repulsive energy to offset this attraction was needed and it was assumed that the size of this energy is the same as the size of the energy of materials and the direction should be the opposite.

From the observation on accelerating expansion of the universe in 1998, we assumed that a repulsive energy bigger than the total energy of visible matter need to exist and called this dark energy. Also, this dark energy has been accepted as an independent energy different from matter or dark matter

We have trusted the above analysis on gravity and GPE had clear validity.

However, through current numerical computation, we found that there was possibility of severe errors in this analysis through gravitational effect.

Negative mass is stable at the state of high energy. So the “problem of the transition of the energy level of minus infinity” does not occur, and thus positive mass and negative mass can exist in the same space-time

In this paper, we show that the universe led to the current structure of the universe, if we assume pair creation of positive energy and negative energy in the early universe.

We looked for size of GPE when negative and positive energy (mass) both exist and try to explain this GPE value regarding to the current size of dark energy.

II. Birth of the universe from zero energy state

Birth of the Universe from Zero Energy State - Bigbang, negative energy,negative mass - YouTube

This is a computer simulation that shows you that the universe led to the current structure of the universe with pair creation of positive energy and negative energy from the zero energy state.

III. Significant characteristics of dark energy and gravitational potential energy

A. Simulation background and method

1) Physical background

a)Initial energy value of the universe

It looks more natural when an initial energy value of universe is 0. Therefore, negative energy is needed to offset positive energy of matters.

If there was pair creation of positive and negative energy in the beginning of the universe, it is estimated that the total value of all positive energy will totally offset the total energy of all negative energy. If we consider only rest mass energy and GPE, the relation below will be valid.

b)

The size of and can be a different during pair creation but this paper has purpose in showing possibility of various GPE values depending on the placement of particles which are pair produced, so the case in which is equal to will be looked into.

c) Gravitational Potential Energy (GPE)

If negative mass and positive mass coexist, GPE consists of the below three items.

GPE between positive masses are negative value.

GPE between negative masses are negative value.

GPE between positive mass and negative mass are positive value.

When the number of negative mass is , and the number of positive mass is , total potential energy is given as follows.