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Thread: Lighthouses

  1. #201  
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    The Umpqua River Light dates from 1894. It features a gorgeous and unusual revolving, octagonal, red-and-white First Order lens. The light shines 24 hours a day, but visit Umpqua after dark or before sunrise, if you possibly can. As you enter Umpqua Lighthouse State Park, down a winding road, the light's rainbow beacon rotates through the tall pines with an alternating red and white beam. The 65 foot tower is brick covered with white stucco, but you will not be able to take you eyes off this fantastic lens.
    In November of 1983 the old chariot wheel mechanism that rotates the light broke down. The Coast Guard promptly installed an airpost beacon on the tower and made plans to remove the original lens. Local residents launched a storm of protest until the Coast Guard relented and repaired the rotating apparatus.

    The present light is the second on this site. The first, built closer to the river in 1857, was washed away by floods six years later.
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    From the main campground at Cape Disappointment State Park you can see Cape Disappointment Lighthouse to the southeast and North Head Lighthouse to the north. How did two lighthouses end up so close together?
    After Cape Disappointment Lightstation was established in 1856 to mark the entrance to the Columbia River, mariners approaching the river from the north complained they could not see the light until they had nearly reached the river. Their cry for an additional lighthouse was supported by the many shipwrecks that occurred along the Long Beach Peninsula, just north of the cape.




    North Head Lighthouse
    Photograph courtesy U.S. Coast Guard

    In 1889, the Lighthouse Board threw their support behind a new lighthouse at North Head.

    The present light at Cape Disappointment is inadequate for the purposes of commerce and navigation. It is believed that if North Head is marked by a first-order light, and the proposed lightstations at Gray's Harbor and Destruction Island are completed, that the Pacific coast will be well supplied with lights of the first order from Cape Flattery to Tillamook Rock. Proper measures should be taken for the establishment of a first-order light at North Head. This, it is estimated, will cost $50,000. ...When this light is established, the first-order light at Cape Disappointment will no longer be necessary, and it is proposed to then reduce it to a light of the fourth-order. It will then be of sufficient power to benefit vessels close to the bar outside and vessels in the Columbia River.
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    In a deed recorded in 1867, John D. and Mary West sold the United States a 47.3-acre (19.1 ha) tract of land. The Light-House board determined that the offshore reef and islands at Cape Blanco were dangerous to maritime commerce; therefore, a lighthouse was authorized for construction.





    Cape Blanco Lighthouse and Dwelling, circa 1943 - 1953
    Over the next three years, the lighthouse was constructed under the direction of Lt. Col. Robert Stockton Williamson. Supplies were ordered and shipped to the cape. Bricks were deemed cheaper if made onsite, so a brickmaker was located and a deal was struck with Rancher Patrick Hughes for access to the required materials.
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  4. #204  
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    The area around the present-day town of Bandon was inhabited by the Coquille Indians, when white settlers started to arrive in 1850. The town site was settled in 1853 and initially called Averill, but a year after the arrival of several immigrants from Bandon, Ireland in 1873, the town’s name was changed to Bandon.


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    Adjacent to the town, the Coquille River empties into the Pacific Ocean. The river extends inland a great distance and was a natural link to the virgin stands of timber in the area. The bar at the mouth of the river, formed by the interaction of the river and ocean, was a major obstacle for ships entering the river. At times, only a few feet of water would cover the bar, but vessels still attempted to navigate the river in hopes of reaping the rewards that lay upstream. In 1880, Congress passed a bill funding the construction of a jetty on the south side of the river’s entrance. The jetty created a clear channel in the river, resulting in a rapid rise in the number of ships entering the river.

    A lighthouse at the entrance to Coquille River was the next logical step for improving navigation, and in 1890 the Lighthouse Board used the following language to request funds for it.

    A light of the fourth order with a fog-signal, at this point, would enable vessels bound into the river to hold on close to the bar during the night so that they would be in a position to cross at the next high water. The light would also serve as a coast light and would be of much service to vessels bound up and down the river.
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    It will then be of sufficient power to benefit vessels close to the bar outside and vessels in the Columbia River.
    Ah, the Columbia river bar, the one and only stretch of water where I ever got seasick.

    We were taking some visiting relatives charter fishing. We left Ilwaco, but then the Coast Guard closed the bar. We sat there for a couple of hrs just bobbing in the swells with nothing to do. I decidedly started to not feel too well( But to my credit, I never ended up feeding the fishes).

    At one point, I decided to lie down on a bunk in the cabin of the boat. As I lay there, the boat went up a swell, then tipped and slid down the other side. I went up with the bunk but did not come down on it, the boat had slipped to the side without me and I landed on the deck; to the great amusement of my uncle.

    When we were finally allowed to cross the bar, the swells were still so large that when you were between two of them it was like being between two hills. If there had been a boat on the other side of a swell, you couldn't have seen it. Makes me wonder how bad it was when it was closed.
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  6. #206  
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    The Umpqua River Light dates from 1894. It features a gorgeous and unusual revolving, octagonal, red-and-white First Order lens.
    Been here.
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  7. #207  
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post



    And here.
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    Cattle point Light, San Juan Island



    I've been here too. About 33 yrs ago, a friend and I backpacked the San Juan islands (see map)



    The ferry dropped us off at Friday Harbor, and we got a ride to Cattle point, where we pitched our tent and spent the night. However, we ended up having to hike almost all the way back to the ferry dock the next day in order to catch our next ferry.
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  9. #209  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Janus View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    It will then be of sufficient power to benefit vessels close to the bar outside and vessels in the Columbia River.
    Ah, the Columbia river bar, the one and only stretch of water where I ever got seasick.

    We were taking some visiting relatives charter fishing. We left Ilwaco, but then the Coast Guard closed the bar. We sat there for a couple of hrs just bobbing in the swells with nothing to do. I decidedly started to not feel too well( But to my credit, I never ended up feeding the fishes).

    At one point, I decided to lie down on a bunk in the cabin of the boat. As I lay there, the boat went up a swell, then tipped and slid down the other side. I went up with the bunk but did not come down on it, the boat had slipped to the side without me and I landed on the deck; to the great amusement of my uncle.

    When we were finally allowed to cross the bar, the swells were still so large that when you were between two of them it was like being between two hills. If there had been a boat on the other side of a swell, you couldn't have seen it. Makes me wonder how bad it was when it was closed.
    Humbolt's bar is considered the worst to cross...it is knarly...and once over, you often cannot get back for 8 hours...ugh!
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    Janus, you are a lighthouse king!
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    Lost Coast Lighthouse
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    Point Reyes Light House

    Point Reyes Light Station was established in 1870 at Point Reyes, Calif., 19 miles (31 km) from the nearest town of Inverness. It is a family station with a complement of four men who maintain a first order light, fog signal and radio beacon. The light tower itself is a sixteen-sided structure of forged iron plate (the original tower) bolted to solid rock. The top of the lantern is 37 feet (11 m) above the ground and focal plane of the light is 294 feet (90 m) above sea level. To reach the light, men assigned must descend 308 steps on the headland from the plateau above the station where the family quarters are situated. The quarters are new, two-story, four-family units (four-plex) built in 1960. The four-plex contains two 2-bedroom and two 3-bedroom units. Buildings maintained on the property, in addition to the family quarters, are the fog signal building, engine room, pump house, paint locker, double garage and a four-car carport with adjoining office and work shop.

    Point Reyes is, by official records, the windiest and foggiest on the Pacific Coast. The station is frequently blanketed by week-long periods of fog and few years pass that do not see violent gales of 75 to 100 miles per hour (121 to 160 km/h) strike the area. Point Reyes Light Station is one of the District’s outstanding tourist attractions. On fair summer weekends we often have several hundred visitors logged aboard. Escorting visitors has become a major portion of the duties of men assigned. Dependent children on the station travel three miles (five kilometers) by station vehicle to school. Commissary and post exchange privileges are available at Hamilton Air Force Base (the nearest armed forces installation), or in the San Francisco area.[2]
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    The lightship Columbia




    Not exactly a lighthouse, but the crew did live on it for weeks at a time sitting at the mouth of the Columbia river. Commissioned in 1951, and decommissioned in 1979, she was the last lightship to be decommissioned on the West coast of the US. She is now moored at the Maritime Museum in Astoria, OR.
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    I was looking for pictures of fences and I believe I have found a lighthouse in the mix!

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    Believe it or not, the original lighthouse on Alcatraz Island was the first lighthouse on the Pacific Coast. By 1850 the discovery of gold in California brought thousands of ships to San Francisco Bay, and an urgent need for a lighthouse as a navigational aid. The U.S. Government made plans to build 8 lighthouses in the Cape Cod style with a short tower protruding from the center. This style remains today in the lighthouses at Pt. Pinos, Old Pt. Loma, and Battery Point. The third-order fresnel was first lit during the summer of 1853 on Alcatraz Island.

    In 1909 the original lighthouse was torn down to make way for the construction of a prison. An 84 foot tower of concrete was built next to the cellhouse, and was lit with a smaller fourth-order lens on December 1, 1909. Keepers continued to serve on Alcatraz until 1963, when the light was automated, and the fresnel lens was replaced with a rotating beacon.

    Since 1972 Alcatraz Island, the lighthouse, and the prison have been part of Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Tour boats to Alcatraz leave hourly from Pier 41 on Fisherman's Wharf. Alcatraz commands a wonderful view of San Francisco, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the Bay. But get reservations early for the ferry to Alcatraz. It's nearly as difficult getting onto this famous island as it once was for prisoners to get off.
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    The original Point Bonita Lighthouse, a 56-foot (17 m) brick tower, was located too high. Unlike the East Coast of the United States, the West Coast has dense high fog, which leaves lower elevations clear. The original light was 306 feet (93 m) above sea level so the second order Fresnel lens was often cloaked in fog and could not be seen from the sea. In 1877, the lighthouse was moved to its current location at 124 feet (38 m) above sea level. The United States Coast Guard currently maintains the light and fog signal. It is accessible to the public during limited hours (12:30 PM–3:30 PM) on Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays. Up until 1940 the lighthouse could be reached without a bridge, but erosion caused a trail leading to the lighthouse to crumble into the sea. A wooden walkway was installed, but when that became treacherous the suspension bridge was built in 1954.
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    Built just south of the entrance to Coos Bay, the present Cape Arago Light is the third to be built on this site. The tremendous shipping traffic of lumber out of Coos Bay and North Bend required the establishment of a light in 1866, after Oregon's first lighthouse on the Umpqua River to the south collapsed in 1861. That first Cape Arago Light was replaced in 1909 with a new tower and fog signal building. These wooden structures served until the present octagonal 40 foot concrete tower replaced them in 1934.
    In 1993 Cape Arago Light was renovated by the Coast Guard. The original Fourth Order lens was replaced by a modern beacon. The site is not open to the public, but can be viewed from Sunset Bay State Park, just south of Charleston.
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    Admiralty Head Lighthouse



    Built in 1903, it was built of brick and stucco, in order to withstand the concussions from the big gun shore batteries of Fort Casey. It is located on the western side of Widbey Island, WA.

    This is another Lighthouse my friend and I visited on our backpacking trip.

    This was right before we got stranded in Port Townsend. We had caught the ferry just South of Fort Casey to Port Townsend, where we were planning to catch a ferry to Kingston, as our next leg of working our way back to Seattle, where we had left the car. Unfortunately, Once in Port Townsend, we found out that the ferry we were intending to use was no longer in service. We had to find an alternate way to get back to Seattle. Our best bet was to get to Port Angeles, catch a ferry there to Victoria B.C., and then the ferry back to Seattle.

    My friend was on a short time table before he had to return to work, so walking all the way to Port Angeles(nearly 50 miles) was out of the question. We were told that there was a tavern a few miles out of town where we could catch a bus in the morning. We camped a little outside of town and set out in the morning. After walking for quite a while, we came to the conclusion that they had underestimated the distance to the bus stop. Afraid that we might miss the bus, we started thumbing. Eventually, a couple of guys in a Jeep stopped to give us a lift. After we told them that we were trying to catch the bus to Port Angeles, they told us that they were going to Port Angeles themselves, and they could take us the whole way.

    We got in to town early enough that we were able to catch the ferry to Victoria, spent the night (At this point we opted for a hotel), and caught the hydrofoil ferry back to Seattle the next day. So we ended up having to leave the Country in order to get from one part of WA to another.
    "Men are apt to mistake the strength of their feelings for the strength of their argument.
    The heated mind resents the chill touch & relentless scrutiny of logic"-W.E. Gladstone


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  20. #220  
    AI's Have More Fun Bad Robot's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by Janus View Post
    Admiralty Head Lighthouse

    Built in 1903, it was built of brick and stucco, in order to withstand the concussions from the big gun shore batteries of Fort Casey. It is located on the western side of Widbey Island, WA.

    This is another Lighthouse my friend and I visited on our backpacking trip.

    This was right before we got stranded in Port Townsend. We had caught the ferry just South of Fort Casey to Port Townsend, where we were planning to catch a ferry to Kingston, as our next leg of working our way back to Seattle, where we had left the car. Unfortunately, Once in Port Townsend, we found out that the ferry we were intending to use was no longer in service. We had to find an alternate way to get back to Seattle. Our best bet was to get to Port Angeles, catch a ferry there to Victoria B.C., and then the ferry back to Seattle.

    My friend was on a short time table before he had to return to work, so walking all the way to Port Angeles(nearly 50 miles) was out of the question. We were told that there was a tavern a few miles out of town where we could catch a bus in the morning. We camped a little outside of town and set out in the morning. After walking for quite a while, we came to the conclusion that they had underestimated the distance to the bus stop. Afraid that we might miss the bus, we started thumbing. Eventually, a couple of guys in a Jeep stopped to give us a lift. After we told them that we were trying to catch the bus to Port Angeles, they told us that they were going to Port Angeles themselves, and they could take us the whole way.

    We got in to town early enough that we were able to catch the ferry to Victoria, spent the night (At this point we opted for a hotel), and caught the hydrofoil ferry back to Seattle the next day. So we ended up having to leave the Country in order to get from one part of WA to another.
    I live about 16 miles from Port Angeles and have taken the ferry to Victoria B.C., But I've never found a reason to take the hydrofoil ferry and would like to have a first hand account of what it's like. I did see it in operation on a TV news program and thought it would be a very cool ride.
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  21. #221  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Bad Robot View Post

    I live about 16 miles from Port Angeles and have taken the ferry to Victoria B.C., But I've never found a reason to take the hydrofoil ferry and would like to have a first hand account of what it's like. I did see it in operation on a TV news program and thought it would be a very cool ride.
    Keep in mind, this was back in 1980, so my memories of the experience are not that fresh. I remember that it had rows of seats that you sat in for the whole passage, and was a smooth ride, but other than that, I can't tell you too much.
    "Men are apt to mistake the strength of their feelings for the strength of their argument.
    The heated mind resents the chill touch & relentless scrutiny of logic"-W.E. Gladstone


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  22. #222  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Janus View Post
    Admiralty Head Lighthouse



    Built in 1903, it was built of brick and stucco, in order to withstand the concussions from the big gun shore batteries of Fort Casey. It is located on the western side of Widbey Island, WA.

    This is another Lighthouse my friend and I visited on our backpacking trip.

    This was right before we got stranded in Port Townsend. We had caught the ferry just South of Fort Casey to Port Townsend, where we were planning to catch a ferry to Kingston, as our next leg of working our way back to Seattle, where we had left the car. Unfortunately, Once in Port Townsend, we found out that the ferry we were intending to use was no longer in service. We had to find an alternate way to get back to Seattle. Our best bet was to get to Port Angeles, catch a ferry there to Victoria B.C., and then the ferry back to Seattle.

    My friend was on a short time table before he had to return to work, so walking all the way to Port Angeles(nearly 50 miles) was out of the question. We were told that there was a tavern a few miles out of town where we could catch a bus in the morning. We camped a little outside of town and set out in the morning. After walking for quite a while, we came to the conclusion that they had underestimated the distance to the bus stop. Afraid that we might miss the bus, we started thumbing. Eventually, a couple of guys in a Jeep stopped to give us a lift. After we told them that we were trying to catch the bus to Port Angeles, they told us that they were going to Port Angeles themselves, and they could take us the whole way.

    We got in to town early enough that we were able to catch the ferry to Victoria, spent the night (At this point we opted for a hotel), and caught the hydrofoil ferry back to Seattle the next day. So we ended up having to leave the Country in order to get from one part of WA to another.

    My sister LIVED In Port Townsend!! WOW!!!!
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  23. #223  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Bad Robot View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by Janus View Post
    Admiralty Head Lighthouse

    Built in 1903, it was built of brick and stucco, in order to withstand the concussions from the big gun shore batteries of Fort Casey. It is located on the western side of Widbey Island, WA.

    This is another Lighthouse my friend and I visited on our backpacking trip.

    This was right before we got stranded in Port Townsend. We had caught the ferry just South of Fort Casey to Port Townsend, where we were planning to catch a ferry to Kingston, as our next leg of working our way back to Seattle, where we had left the car. Unfortunately, Once in Port Townsend, we found out that the ferry we were intending to use was no longer in service. We had to find an alternate way to get back to Seattle. Our best bet was to get to Port Angeles, catch a ferry there to Victoria B.C., and then the ferry back to Seattle.

    My friend was on a short time table before he had to return to work, so walking all the way to Port Angeles(nearly 50 miles) was out of the question. We were told that there was a tavern a few miles out of town where we could catch a bus in the morning. We camped a little outside of town and set out in the morning. After walking for quite a while, we came to the conclusion that they had underestimated the distance to the bus stop. Afraid that we might miss the bus, we started thumbing. Eventually, a couple of guys in a Jeep stopped to give us a lift. After we told them that we were trying to catch the bus to Port Angeles, they told us that they were going to Port Angeles themselves, and they could take us the whole way.

    We got in to town early enough that we were able to catch the ferry to Victoria, spent the night (At this point we opted for a hotel), and caught the hydrofoil ferry back to Seattle the next day. So we ended up having to leave the Country in order to get from one part of WA to another.
    I live about 16 miles from Port Angeles and have taken the ferry to Victoria B.C., But I've never found a reason to take the hydrofoil ferry and would like to have a first hand account of what it's like. I did see it in operation on a TV news program and thought it would be a very cool ride.
    I took that ferry too!! Way back in 1969 or 1970 when we were doing all the military bases in Washington State and had a day off! Met a young man on that ferry and we saw each other off and on for three years!.......
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    Why does this modest lighthouse stand only a few miles south of the tall tower at Yaquina Head? That's exactly what the Lighthouse Board wondered before they closed it, only three years after its completion in 1871.
    The original Fifth Order lens is long gone, and the structure has experienced lengthy periods of neglect, but today it is immaculately restored and filled with period furniture. The light was re-activated in 1996. An exceptional gift shop in the basement is worth the visit.

    Yaquina Bay Lighthouse is located in a state park at the north end of the Yaquina Bay Bridge.
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    Yaquina Head Light

    Newport, Oregon

    Yaquina Head's rock outcropping and 93 foot tower are visible for several miles along the Pacific Coast Highway. The light was completed in 1873 and is a classic example of the towers of that period. Inside the lantern is a huge 12 foot high First Order fresnel lens.
    The history of Yaquina is as shrouded in mystery as the cape is in foul weather. A persistent myth is that the lighthouse was mistakenly constructed in the wrong location, but mislabeled government survey documents seem to be responsible for this historical inaccuracy. In any case, Yaquina Head Light was built just north of Yaquina Bay Light, dooming the smaller tower to obsolesence.

    Today the lighthouse is the centerpiece of Yaquina Head Outstanding Natural Area, and is one of the most-visited lights on the west coast, with over 400,000 visitors each year.
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    Cape Meares Light

    Tillamook, Oregon

    The Cape Meares Lighthouse was constructed in 1890, just south of Tillamook Bay. The stubby, octagonal tower is only 38 feet tall, but sits on the edge of a towering 200 ft. cliff above the ocean.
    Like Yaquina Head, Cape Meares has been stalked by persistent rumors that it was built on the wrong site. Again, U.S. Coastal Survey charts seem to be at fault, with the mapmaker's error reversing the actual locations of Cape Meares and Cape Lookout to the south.

    The light was decommissioned by the Coast Guard in 1963, replaced by a powerful beacon mounted on an ugly concrete blockhouse. The lighthouse structures were immediately subject to severe vandalism--the keeper's quarters had to be destroyed, and the four bullseyes from the First Order lens were stolen. Cape Meares Light was eventually turned over to the Oregon State Park system. Over the years three of the four bullseyes have been recovered--one in a drug raid in 1984, one returned to a local museum, and one anonymously left on the Assistant Park Manager's front porch.

    The lens has not yet been restored completely, but visitors can climb into the lantern and inspect the huge lens up close. If you look closely at this photo, you can see the holes where the missing bullseyes should be.
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    A different shot of the Tillamook rock Lighthouse.



    The most expensive light house ever built on the West Coast at the time she went active in 1881, and nicknamed "Terrible Tilly", due to the dangers involved in keeping it manned and supplied. She was deactivated in 1957 and is now privately owned and acts as an unofficial columbarium (A repository for cremated remains).

    The lighthouse is visible from both the towns of Cannon Beach and Seaside, OR, but not, as its name might suggest, from Tillamook, which is some 44 miles to the South.
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    Quote Originally Posted by Janus View Post
    A different shot of the Tillamook rock Lighthouse.



    The most expensive light house ever built on the West Coast at the time she went active in 1881, and nicknamed "Terrible Tilly", due to the dangers involved in keeping it manned and supplied. She was deactivated in 1957 and is now privately owned and acts as an unofficial columbarium (A repository for cremated remains).

    The lighthouse is visible from both the towns of Cannon Beach and Seaside, OR, but not, as its name might suggest, from Tillamook, which is some 44 miles to the South.
    Thank you Janus!! That is interesting!

    I'd post a few lighthouses tonight, but my time here getting shorter ad my responsibility list keeps doubling daily...UGH...I can't fit into 10 days which takes 6 weeks to accomplish...I am so tired...I get up running and run either doing stuff on the computer to find out what I need to do or physically.

    Sorry...that was venting

    The lighthouses.....each and very one of them are so remarkable!
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  29. #229  
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    Lighthouse Marblehead Lake Erie (Photos taken at different times)









    History of the Marblehead Lighthouse

    In 1819 just 6 years after the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812, the 15th U. S. Congress recognized the importance of having navigational aides along the Great Lakes treacherous coast line to make water transportation as safe as possible. Congress authorized a total of $5,000 to build a lighthouse marking the entrance to Sandusky Bay. Contractor William Kelley built the 50’ tower of native limestone on the tip of the Marblehead Peninsula, then called Rocky Point. The base of the tower is 25’ in diameter, with walls 5’ thick. It narrows to 12’ at the top.

    Marblehead Lighthouse has had 15 lighthouse keepers, 2 were women. The first keeper was Benajah Wolcott, a Revolutionary War veteran and one of the first settlers on the peninsula. He lived in a small stone home on the Sandusky Bay side of the peninsula. Each night, he lit the wicks of the 13 whale oil lamps that were the original light fixture with a 16”diameter metal reflector projecting the light across the lake. Other duties of the lighthouse keeper included keeping a log of passing ships, noting the weather conditions, and organizing rescue efforts when necessary.

    The original whale oil lamps were replaced by a single kerosene lantern magnified by a fresnel lens in 1858. The new lens created a brighter, more visible, white light.

    In 1880, the lighthouse keeper’s household moved to a new frame home next to the lighthouse that now houses the museum and in 1898, the lighthouse was increased in height and a new brick column was constructed inside the original limestone structure. Engineers did not believe the limestone would be strong enough to handle the additional height. The interior column added much needed stability to the structure and allowed for a much larger fresnel lens. In 1901 the light was raised again to its final height of 73 feet 6".

    Electric lighting replaced the kerosene lantern, dramatically increasing the candlepower of the signal in 1923. In 1974 the original limestone was repointed and coated with concrete. During this refacing the dome and trim were painted red which is how the light appears today. The big fresnel lens was replaced in 1972 with a plastic navigational beacon that automatically flashes a green light every six seconds.

    - See more at: Lake Erie's Marblehead Lighthouse
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    Toledo Harbor Lighthouse




    In 1897 the Toledo shipping channel was dredged wider and deeper to allow increased shipping to the Port of Toledo located in the Maumee River, furthering the need for a new lighthouse. The Army Corps of Engineers designed the Toledo Harbor Lighthouse and construction began in 1901. A 20-foot deep stone crib is at the base of the Toledo Harbor Lighthouse. The Toledo Lighthouse is four stories high with a steel frame and an attached one-story fog signal annex building. The Lighthouse has Romanesque arches and buff brick. Its original cost was $152,000. The total height is 85 feet. First illuminated May 23, 1904, the 3-˝ order Fresnel lens featured a 180-degree bulls eye, two smaller 60-degree bulls eyes and a ruby red half cylinder glass made in Paris, France by Barbier and Bernard. A weighted clockwork mechanism made the light rotate. The original Fennel lens could be seen from up to twenty-four miles. The original lens was removed by helicopter in 1995. For about ten years, the lens was at COSI in Toledo. The Toledo Lighthouse now displays the lens at Maumee Bay State Park in the lodge which can be seen 24/7.

    In 1966 the light was automated and Coast Guard keepers no longer manned the lighthouse. To prevent vandalism, a uniformed mannequin officer was placed in the window and the windows in the lower floors were boarded, the boat basin removed. Through the years there were two uniformed officer mannequins but only one remains. She has a blond wig and is fondly known as Sarah. Coast Guardsmen assigned to maintain the light sign the mannequin. With the lure of the mannequins, ghost stories came about. In 1985 the light was removed and replaced with a new small efficient lens. The lighthouse was first operated under the U.S. Lighthouse Service with living quarters for the chief, assistant keeper and their families. The basement had seven rooms including a commissary, general store, furnace etc. The Coast Guard now maintains the Toledo Light. The overall condition of the Toledo Light House is good. The inside is empty, except for Sarah, the Mannequin, in the second story window. The lighthouse has 4,000 square feet.
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  31. #231  
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    Milwaukee Breakwater Lighthouse









    The main light is located at the south end of the north breakwater in 34 feet of water. It marks the north side of the main entrance.

    Structure: The foundation pier, inclosing a basement, is of reinforced concrete, 54 by 60 feet, 20 feet high above water, and rests on a subfoundation formed by three reinforced concrete caissons, each 20 by 54 feet, 21 feet 3 inches deep, standing side by side on a stone fill 4 feet deep over a bottom of natural clay, and above these caissons a reinforced concrete slab 54 by 60 feet and 7 ˝ feet deep. The slab forms the floor of the basement, and also serves to join the three caissons together. The outside walls of the basement are 30 inches thick and the main decor or basement roof is 12 inches thick, supported by the outside walls and interior steel columns. The building above the main deck is 43 feet 2 inches by 29 feet 5 inches, of structural steel framework covered with steel plating, and has a flat concrete roof. A square tower, of similar steel construction, rises two stories above the roof of the main structure, and is surmounted by a fourth-order cast-iron lantern, the focal plane of which is about 67 feet above the water. The main deck slab and roof slab are waterproofed with asphaltic membrane, protected by a concrete slab with asphalt expansion joints. The basement is occupied by fog-signal machinery and heating plant and rooms for storage of fuel oil and other supplies. The first floor contains a boat room, kitchen, living room, and dining room. The second floor contains four bedrooms, closets, and bathroom.

    Illuminating apparatus: The lantern is provided with a fourth-order fixed lens, illuminated by a 500-watt electric lamp and red screen candlepower of beam 5,000. A commercial sign flasher provides the occulting characteristics of the light.

    Fog signal: A type F diaphone is installed in the fourth story or watch room of the tower just below the lantern. Commercial current transmitted by submarine cable furnished current for the air compressor. Oil-engine-driven compressors provide emergency service in case of failure of the commercial current supply.

    Additional equipment: this station is electrically operated throughout. Commercial current is transmitted to the station at 480 volts furnishing current at 110-volts for the radiobeacon tower and dwelling lights, and at 440 volts for the air compressors. This station is provided with a radiobeacon with 200-watt transmitter, the emergency current supply for which is furnished by a gasoline-driven generator. Telephone connection with the city system is maintained through wires carried in the submarine power cable.

    The circular lantern room with helical bars and fourth-order Fresnel lens used atop the Milwaukee Breakwater Lighthouse were taken from the Milwaukee Pierhead. The pierhead tower was then equipped with an old lantern from stock and a fifth-order Fresnel lens. The Milwaukee Lightship remained at its station until 1932.

    Jack Eckert was assigned to Milwaukee Breakwater Lighthouse in 1955. At that time, the station was staffed with four coastguardsmen. The men served three-days on and three-days off, and two of them were always at the lighthouse, where they stood watches of twelve-hours on and twelve-hours off. Their main duty was to monitor the timing of the radiobeacon and the distance-finding blast of the foghorn. Each day, they also had to clean the cobwebs from the lantern room, where spiders “came in all sizes, shapes, and colors.” Spider bites on the station were just a way of life.
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  32. #232  
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    Peggy's Cove Lighthouse
    (Perhaps Canada's most iconic lighthouse)



    Location: Peggys Cove, Nova Scotia (about 20 miles west of Halifax)
    Built/Lit: 1914/1915
    Structure: Octogonal pyramidal (similar to original wooden lighthouse from 1868), concrete and steel
    Height: 15 m (49 ft)
    Focal height: 22 m (72 ft)

    Note: The first recorded name of the cove was Eastern Point Harbour or Peggs Harbour in 1766. The village of Peggys Cove is likely named after Saint Margaret's Bay (Peggy being the nickname for Margaret), which Samuel de Champlain named after his mother Margarite. However, there has been much folklore created to explain the name. Samuel de Champlain was a French navigator, cartographer, draughtsman, soldier, explorer, geographer, ethnologist, diplomat, and chronicler. He founded New France and Quebec City on July 3, 1608. He is important to Canadian history because he made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements.

    Special Note: The lighthouse formerly contained a small Canada Post office in the lower level during the summer months serving as the village post office where visitors could send postcards and letters. Each piece of mail received a special cancellation mark in the shape of the lighthouse (see below). The post office closed in 2009.



    Special Note Addendum: The Peggys Cove cancellation mark reminds me of a different one from the non-electrified village of Supai, Arizona within the Havasupai Indian Reservation inside the Grand Canyon. It is only one of two remaining American locations whose mail is delivered by mule trains. The hand cancellation at the Supai Post Office contains the image of a mule train.

    Extra Special Note: Click here for a live webcam view of Peggy's Cove Lighthouse. Select 1 second refresh rate for best effect. Most impressive at night, of course.
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    Pt. Arena is a narrow strip of breathtakingly beautiful California coast. A masonry tower was erected on this site in 1870, fitted with a first-order Fresnel lens. The earthquake of 1906 destroyed the lens, tower, and dwellings, leaving only the fog signal builting intact. The 115 foot replacement tower was built of reinforced concrete with buttrussing at the bottom. A San Francisco company with experience building smokestacks was contracted to build the new tower, accounting for the smokestack-like design. The two-ton first-order lens shone from 1908 until 1977, when a modern rotating beacon was installed on the tower balcony.

    After the earthquake, the keeper's house was replaced with four houses. The Pt. Arena Lighthouse Keeper's Association, which currently leases the site from the Coast Guard, rents the houses to overnight guests. Call 707.882.2777 or email palight@mcn.org for details. The lighthouse and museum are open daily 11:00 - 2:30, and on summer weekends 10:00 - 3:30.
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  34. #234  
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    If you drive down Coast Highway 1 from Monterey, you'll see a large, hump-shaped rock nearly separated from the shore. There's a flashing light on this volcanic block, and you need to look closely to notice that a smallish lightstation sits high on the rugged rock's backbone.

    I wish I'd gotten a chance to tour this one ... you can call 408-625-4419 for info on guided tours (Sat 10:00 and 2:00; Sun 10:00 plus others, including moonlight tours). Without a tour, you can only gaze from the highway.

    If you're in the area, seek out the Nepenthe restaurant. It's up in the hills nearby, and if dining in a giant treehouse overlooking the ocean appeals to you ... well you'll have to see for yourself.
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  35. #235  
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    Bell Rock Lighthouse
    (The world's oldest surviving sea-washed lighthouse built by an extraordinary man!)



    Location: Eleven miles off the coast of Angus, Scotland
    Built: 1807–1810
    First Lit: 1811
    Height: 35 m (115 ft)
    Focal Height: 28 m (92 ft)
    Designer/Builder: Robert Stevenson (grandfather of Robert Louis Stevenson)

    The Lighthouse

    The masonry work on which the lighthouse rests was constructed to such a high standard that it has not been replaced or adapted in 200 years. The challenges faced in the building of the lighthouse have led to it being described as one of the Seven Wonders of the Industrial World (a 50-minute documentary).

    According to legend, the rock is called Bell Rock because of a 14th-century attempt by the Abbot of Arbroath to install a warning bell on it. The bell lasted only one year before it was stolen by a Dutch pirate. This story is immortalised in The Inchcape Rock, a poem by 19th-century poet Robert Southey. The rock was the scene of many shipwrecks as it lies just below the surface of the sea for all but a few hours at low tide.

    By the turn of the 18th century, it was estimated that the rocks were responsible for the wrecking of up to six ships every winter. In one storm alone, 70 ships were lost off the east coast of Scotland. The Scottish engineer Robert Stevenson had proposed the construction of a lighthouse on Bell Rock in 1799, but its cost and radical design caused it to be shelved. However, the loss of the warship HMS York and all 500 men on board in 1804 resulted in a furore in Parliament that eventually led to legislation being passed in 1806 enabling construction to begin. Since the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse, the only recorded shipwrecks have been that of HMS Argyll during wartime blackouts in 1915 and the Banff-registered cargo vessel Rosecraig that ran aground in fog on the evening of 21 September 1908, and sank.

    The Northern Lighthouse Board awarded the contract to design and build the Bell Rock Lighthouse to John Rennie, with Stevenson being appointed as chief assistant. The design was based on the earlier Eddystone Lighthouse designed by John Smeaton, which Stevenson had inspected in 1801, and which was also built on an offshore reef using interlocking stones. The Bell Rock Lighthouse also contained newer features, such as rotating lights alternating between red and white designed by the carpenter Francis Watts. Stevenson was totally responsible for construction and his written account of the work gave little or no credit to Rennie.

    For 20 hours of each day, while the rock was covered by up to 12 feet (3.7 m) of water, the men originally lived on a ship moored 1 mile (2 km) off the rock. The first task was to build a beacon house on tall wooden struts to house 15 men, so they would have a place to stay on site, instead of the time-consuming row to and from the ship each day.

    The Designer/Builder

    Robert Stevenson was born in Glasgow. His father and uncle died when Robert was an infant, leaving his mother poor, and so, Robert was educated at a charity school. When Robert was 15, his mother married Thomas Smith a tinsmith, lampmaker and ingenious mechanic who had been appointed engineer in 1786 to the newly formed Northern Lighthouse Board. Robert served as Smith's assistant, and was so successful that, at age 19, he was entrusted with the supervision of the construction of a lighthouse on the island of Little Cumbrae in the River Clyde. He devoted himself to follow the profession of a civil engineer. At age 25, Robert was appointed engineer to the Lighthouse Board in succession to Smith, and at age 28, was adopted as Smith's business partner.

    The most important work of Stevenson's life was the Bell Rock Lighthouse based upon the design of the earlier Eddystone Lighthouse by John Smeaton but with several improvements. The involvement of John Rennie in the project led to some contention for the project's credit; however, the Northern Lighthouse Board gave full credit to Stevenson.

    Stevenson served for nearly fifty years as engineer to the Northern Lighthouse Board, during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and later improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, mountings, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, and in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers. For this last innovation he was awarded a gold medal by the William I of the Netherlands.

    Robert was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1815. Three of Robert’s sons became engineers: David, Alan, and Thomas; Robert Louis Stevenson was his grandson.

    A book

    The Lighthouse Stevensons: The Extraordinary Story of the Building of the Scottish Lighthouses by the Ancestors of Robert Louis Stevenson by Bella Bathurst. Bathurst tells how four generations of Robert Louis Stevenson's family designed and built the 97 manned lighthouses that speckle the Scottish coast. A reluctant engineer turned writer, RLS transmuted his lighthouse-building expeditions around Scotland's northern coast into his novels Treasure Island and Kidnapped. He rebelled against his quarrelsome father Thomas, who tried to corral him into the family business, and the rest is literary history. Much less well-known is the Lighthouse Stevensons' extraordinary family history: they built harbors, canals, railways and street lighting systems, and contributed numerous inventions to optics, engineering and architecture. Yet, out of stubborn altruistic pride, no family member ever took out a patent on any of their inventions.

    Even readers with no special interest in the sea or Scotland will be swept up in Bathurst's narrative, intriguingly illustrated with photographs, prints and drawings. Sir Walter Scott, Michael Faraday and Daniel Defoe stalk through these pages, and Bathurst unveils the Lighthouse Stevensons' battles, accomplishments, frustrations and personal tragedies against a backdrop of the Scottish Enlightenment, the advent of British naval supremacy, the Crimean War, the destruction of Highland society and the uneasy marriage of Scotland and England. She also devotes a marvelous, wistful chapter to the lost art of lighthouse-keeping.
    Last edited by jrmonroe; January 4th, 2014 at 08:29 PM.
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  36. #236  
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    jrmonroe

    Very nice write up. From looking at that picture, I think getting anyone into or off that lighthouse in any kind of rough weather would be very problematic if not impossible.

    The Fresnel lens has been mentioned many times in connection with lighthouses. So I looked it up and the Wikipedia does a good job of explaining it for those who are interested in it.

    Fresnel lens - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    Last edited by Bad Robot; January 4th, 2014 at 10:52 PM.
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  37. #237  
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    I was on the verge of asking if someone would explain Fresnel lenses. From the photos below, the "order" of the lenses seems counterintuitive — that is, I'd expect the "higher-ordered" lenses to be more complex, but it's the other way around. So then, to what does the "order" refer? Thanks.

    Grief is the price we pay for love. (CM Parkes) Our postillion has been struck by lightning. (Unknown) War is always the choice of the chosen who will not have to fight. (Bono) The years tell much what the days never knew. (RW Emerson) Reality is not always probable, or likely. (JL Borges)
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  38. #238  
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    I was on the verge of asking if someone would explain Fresnel lenses. From the photos below, the "order" of the lenses seems counterintuitive — that is, I'd expect the "higher-ordered" lenses to be more complex, but it's the other way around. So then, to what does the "order" refer? Thanks.

    Lighthouse lens sizes

    Fresnel produced six sizes of lighthouse lenses, divided into four orders based on their size and focal length. In modern use, these are classified as first through sixth order. An intermediate size between third and fourth order was added later, as well as sizes above first order and below sixth.

    A first-order lens has a focal length of 920 mm (36 in) and an optical area 2590 mm (8.5 ft) high. The complete assembly is about 3.7 m (12 ft) tall and 1.8 m (6 ft) wide. The smallest (sixth-order) has a focal length of 150 mm (5.9 in) and an optical area 433 mm (17 in) high.

    Order - Focal Length mm - Height - First installed

    Eighth
    Seventh
    Sixth 150 0.433
    Fifth 182.5 0.541
    Fourth 250 0.722
    3 12 375
    Third 500 1.576
    Second 750 2.069
    First 920 2.59
    Mesoradial 1125
    Hyperradial 1330 1879



    The order appears to be related to the focal length.
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    love that
    jmonroe!!

    Thanks for sharing!

    What an awesome lighthouse!
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  40. #240  
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    The Third Eddystone Lighthouse
    (moved to Plymouth and known as Smeaton's Tower
    as a memorial to its designer, engineer John Smeaton)



    Original location: Eddystone Rocks, 9 miles south of Rame Head, Cornwall, UK. The Eddystone Rocks are Precambrian gneiss, although they are anything but "nice" to ships and boats.
    Current location: Plymouth Hoe, a large south-facing open public space in the English coastal city of Plymouth.
    Constructed: 1756–1759
    First Lit: 1759
    Height: 72 feet
    Dismantled and re-erected on a new base on Plymouth Hoe: 1877

    Smeaton's Eddystone Lighthouse was closed because the foundation of the rock on which it was built had eroded to the point where, when a strong wave would strike, the lighthouse would shake side-to-side. Interestingly, when workers went to dismantle the lighthouse, they discovered that the foundation Smeaton had constructed was so strong that it was decided to leave it there and build a new base on the Hoe for the tower.

    Below is the fourth Eddystone Lighthouse with the foundation of the third Eddystone Lighthouse behind it. The dangerous proximity of these rocks to the ocean's surface is evident by their wash.



    Here below is the fourth Eddystone Lighthouse with the base of #3, a bit more clearly.



    .........................................
    And, yes, someone is fishing from the base of the fourth lighthouse!

    If you watched the documentary given in my original post on the Bell Rock Lighthouse, this diagram below of the interlocking stones for the third Eddystone Lighthouse (on whose design Stevenson based his Bell Rock Lighthouse) will give more meaning to what was shown in the documentary.



    And below is a cross-sectional view of the third (ie, Smeaton's) Eddystone Lighthouse.

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  41. #241  
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    I used to visit this one on the Oregon coast when we lived there (one of my photos):


    Cape Meares Lighthouse. Unfortunately, it was vandalized in 2010 by some idiots who decided to drive down and shoot out the windows. Did $50,000 in damage:


    Fortunately, they repaired it:


    Even with the glass damaged, it was quite lovely:
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  42. #242  
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    Flick, it looks like the Cape Meares Lighthouse has a red pane of glass in it. How does that work? How does it affect its "signature"?
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  43. #243  
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Flick, it looks like the Cape Meares Lighthouse has a red pane of glass in it. How does that work? How does it affect its "signature"?
    I couldn't find anything about it in several searches, but I'd think if there are more than one lighthouse in a fairly close area, that it would be a good way for ships to identify which lighthouse it is from a distance.
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  44. #244  
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    I believe the Fresnel lens in a lighthouse has different colors. Those colors differentiate the signal from safe waters or dangerous shoals.

    I got a lot of info from the old woman who ran the info booth at the lighthouse, but I couldn't retain all of it.
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  45. #245  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Flick Montana View Post
    I believe the Fresnel lens in a lighthouse has different colors. Those colors differentiate the signal from safe waters or dangerous shoals.

    I got a lot of info from the old woman who ran the info booth at the lighthouse, but I couldn't retain all of it.
    If you look at that 4th picture it would appear that a single pane of glass is red and I believe that is what jrmonroe is talking about.
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  46. #246  
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    The lens has red sections, but the outer panes are all crystal clear.
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  47. #247  
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    Quote Originally Posted by Bad Robot View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Flick, it looks like the Cape Meares Lighthouse has a red pane of glass in it. How does that work? How does it affect its "signature"?
    I couldn't find anything about it in several searches, but I'd think if there are more than one lighthouse in a fairly close area, that it would be a good way for ships to identify which lighthouse it is from a distance.
    There are apparently different reasons for lighthouses to show different colors:

    To distinguish themselves from nearby lighthouses.

    For warning or danger

    To make them stand out against other(non-lighthouse) lights

    To mark the port or starboard of an inlet. (red to port and green to starboard)
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    Cape Blanco Light

    Port Orford, Oregon

    Cape Blanco is the southernmost of Oregon's lights. It is also the oldest original tower in Oregon. The light was proposed in 1864, and a first-order lens was ordered from Henri LaPaute, of Paris. The light was finally lit for the first time on December 20, 1870.
    Today, the 59 foot tower stands on restricted Coast Guard grounds near Cape Blanco State Park. In 1936 the original lens was replaced with a Second Order rotating fresnel. In 1992, vandals broke into the lantern room and smashed several sections of the lens, including one of the eight bull's-eyes. Two years later, after nearly $20,000 in repairs, Cape Blanco's fresnel shone again.

    Access to the light is restricted, but the gates are opened daily April 1st to October 31st..




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    They are all so amazing!!!! What great history!
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    El Hank (Casablanca)

    Morocco's tallest traditional lighthouse and the landfall light for Casablanca, located on a headland at the western edge of the city. Built in 1919 and one of 6 lighthouse on the Rabat/Casablanca Atlantic coast:



    The El Hank Lighthouse is also known as Pointe d'el Hank Light and stands at an impressive 161 feet on a rocky outcrop at the edge of Casablanca.

    Built in 1905 and renovated around 1919 the white masonry lighthouse was built to allow ships to safely arrive at Casablanca without running aground.
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  51. #251  
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    PORT ADELAIDE LIGHTHOUSE



    Lightkeepers and their families lived in a cottage on the island, and stores and mail arrived
    monthly from Adelaide. The lighthouse used a grandfather clock principle to rotate the
    mechanism, requiring rewinding every 90 minutes. The illuminant was vapourised kerosine, in use
    until 1976 when it was converted to electricity.

    It was erected at the entrance to the Port River and was first lit on January 1st 1869.
    The lighthouse stood on a platform approximately 20 feet above the high water mark, supported
    by wooden piles. It was originally intended for the lightkeepers to live in the quarters in the base
    of the tower, however, the weather conditions proved this plan to be unsuitable, and accommodation
    was built for the keepers between the decks.

    In 1901 the lantern from the lighthouse was installed in a screw pile lighthouse on Wonga Shoal
    (8 miles from Port Adelaide) while the iron structure was re-erected on South Neptune Island in
    Spencer Gulf. It was transferred to the Island via the lighthouse vessel Governor Musgrave, and
    fitted with a new second order dioptric light, first exhibited on November 1st 1901.

    The Port Adelaide Lighthouse stands at the end of Commercial Road, Port Adelaide, as an exhibit of the South
    Australian Maritime Museum. This is, however, after almost 120 years serving South Australia’s coastline. The lighthouse
    arrived in South Australia in April 1867, having been prefabricated in England and shipped to Australia in pieces.

    In 1985 the lighthouse was decommissioned and acquired by the South Australian Maritime Museum. It was
    restored and reassembled on its present site on Black Diamond Square, and opened to the public on March 13th.

    Specifications
    Height to Platform: 50 feet
    Height Overall: 69 feet
    Number of Steps: 69
    Visibility of Light: 25 miles
    Character: 3 flashes
    and a pause in a 50 second cycle
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  52. #252  
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    Nova Scotia's tallest lighthouse in Shelburne County.

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    Jeddah Light is a concrete and steel lighthouse built in 1990. It is located in Jeddah in Saudi Arabia and marks the end of the outer pier on the north side of the entrance to the city’s seaport. It is 133 meters tall, has a range of 46 kilometers and emits three white flashes every 20 seconds.

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    The Perry’s Victory and International Peace Memorial is a granite lighthouse in Put in Bay, Ohio in the United States. It was built in 1915 and is considered as the tallest lighthouse in the country, measuring 107 meters. It commemorates the victory of Commodore Oliver Perry in a naval battle in the War of 1812 and celebrates the lasting peace among the U.S., Canada and Britain after the war. It has the most massive Doric column in the world. The site became a national monument in 1936.

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    The Yokohama Marine Tower is a steel skeletal lighthouse located in Yokohama in Japan. It was built in 1961 and is considered as the tallest lighthouse in the country. Its location deck is located at a height of 100 meters. The lighthouse has 10 sides and is shaped like a cone. It has a range of 46 kilometers. It emits a flash of red and green light every 20 seconds.

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    The Ile Vierge Lighthouse, at 82.5 meters, is the tallest lighthouse made of stone in Europe. It was built in 1902 and is also the tallest traditional lighthouse in the world. Located in the northwest coast of Brittany, it marks the southwestern limit of the English Channel. It has a truncated cone and cylindrical interior face that is lined with 12,500 opaline glass tiles. The lamp has four lenses with a focal length of half a kilometer. It emits a white flash every five seconds and can be seen for 50 kilometers. The lighthouse is fully automated though there is always a personnel on hand.

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    The Lighthouse of Genoa, 77 meters in height, is the main lighthouse of the Italian city of Genoa. It is also called Faro di Genova or Lanterna. It was built in 1543 and is considered as one of the oldest standing structures of its kind in the world. It is made of stone and has two square portions capped with a terrace and capped by a lantern where the light is emitted. It has a range of 46 kilometers and emits two white flashes separated by five seconds every 20 seconds. The lantern is painted with a distinctive red and white checkerboard pattern.

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    The Phare de Gatteville, 75 meters, is an active lighthouse at the tip of Barfleur in the lower Normandy region of France. Also called the Pointe de Barfleur Light, the lighthouse has been around since 1835. As early as 1734 however, a cylindrical granite lighthouse that stood at 25 meters already existed to guide ships amidst the strong currents in the area. It has a range of 54 kilometers and emits two white flashes every 10 seconds. Additionally, a horn is sounded off every minute.

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  59. #259  
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    The Lesnoy Mole Rear Range Light is an active lighthouse located in St. Petersburg in Russia. Located in a dockyard area on the commercial harbor waterfront of the city, the lighthouse guides ships entering and exiting the port. The lighthouse is made of metal and is considered as the tallest lighthouse in Russia. It is also the tallest range light in the world, at 73 meters in height.

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    Mulantou Lighthouse is also known as the Hainan Head Light. It is located in Hainan province in China and is considered as the tallest lighthouse in China, at 72 meters. Located on the southern side of the province, it marks the south side of the entrance to Qiongzhou Strait. It was built in 1995 and is made of concrete with a round cylindrical shape rising from a circular base that is two stories high. Red trim adorns this white lighthouse and a circular observation room is available at the top.

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    Baishamen Lighthouse, 72 meters, is a concrete lighthouse located on Haidian Island in Hainan province in China. It has a hexagonal base that is three stories high. The focal plane is 78 meters and emits a white flash every six seconds. The lighthouse itself has a cylindrical and triangular shape with a base made completely of white concrete. Located on the east side of Haikou Bay, it serves as a landfall light for the city. It was built in the early part of the last decade.

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    Storozhenskiy Light is also known as Storozhno Light. This is an active lighthouse located along Lake Ladoga in Leningrad Oblast in Russia. The 71 meter lighthouse is made of stone and stands headland on the eastern side of the lake where the Svirsky lip of the lake is separated from the Volkhov Bay. It was built in 1911.



    That rounds out the 10 tallest lighthouses as of August 16th, 2013, according to Sammy Said.

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  63. #263  
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    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    Cape Blanco Light, Port Orford, Oregon

    Not for nothing, this is for me the most picturesque lighthouse posted so far. And with quite the gem of a lens. Thanks babe.
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    Cape Blanco Light, Port Orford, Oregon

    Not for nothing, this is for me the most picturesque lighthouse posted so far. And with quite the gem of a lens. Thanks babe.
    Thank you....a bit down this evening....not my norm..I'm usually the sun flower, but even us sun flowers have difficult days......

    your comment raised my spirit..thank you *S*
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    Alcatraz Island proved to be a huge obstacle in the busy shipping channel of San Francisco Bay. So much so, that the U.S. Government allocated money to construct a lighthouse on the island. The first tower was constructed in 1852, but the third-order Fresnel lens wouldn't arrive until 1854. This made it the first lighthouse to be built on the West Coast. This tower would serve until 1906 when it was damaged beyond repair in the 1906 earthquake.

    A new tower design was put forth after the earthquake. The new tower would be made out of reinforced concrete and would stand 84' tall. This would be tall enough to tower above the military prison that was built on the island. In 1934, the military prison was upgraded to a maximum security federal penitentiary. Even though the lighthouse keeper was on the outside of the prison walls, they weren't entirely safe. A riot broke out in 1946 in which many guards and inmates were killed, however, the lighthouse keepers were fine. The station was automated in 1963 right around the same time as the prison closed.

    The tower is still an active aid to navigation and can be spotted from almost any point around San Francisco, Oakland, and the Marin Headlands. The tower is all that remains of the old station. The lighthouse keeper's dwelling was destroyed by fire in 1969 by Native American protesters.

    Directions: The lighthouse sits off shore on Alcatraz Island. The only way to get to the island is to by boat. There is a cruise service that offers a ferry service to the island and tours. Make sure you buy your tickets in advance as the tours regularly sell out weeks in advance.


    new information.,and new source
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    Description: Anacapa Island is actually a chain of three small islands, located twelve miles off the California coast and linked together by reefs that are visible only at low tide. The islands are named appropriately East, Middle, and West. West Island, the largest island of the group, is two miles long by six-tenths of a mile wide, and rises to a peak of 930 feet. Middle Island is one and a half miles long, a quarter of a mile wide, and 325 feet at its highest point. East Island is a mile long, a quarter of a mile wide, and rises to an elevation of 250 feet. Just off the eastern end of East Island is a forty-foot-high natural bridge, named Arch Rock, which is a trademark for Anacapa Island and Channel Islands National Park.



    Etching of Anacapa Island by James Whistler

    The islands were discovered by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo in 1542 and given the name "Las Mesitas," meaning Little Tables, by the Spanish explorer Gaspar De Portola in 1769. Captain George Vancouver later rechristened the islands Anacapa, derived from the Chumash Indian word, "Eneeapha," which means island of deception or mirage. For most of the perimeter of the island, steep sea cliffs border the water. Revealed in these cliffs are lava tubes and air pockets, which indicate the islands volcanic origin. Many of these features are now sea caves, offering interesting points of exploration for kayakers.

    At 11 p.m. on December 2, 1853, the side-wheel steamer Winfield Scott ran aground on Middle Anacapa Island in dense fog, jolting its passengers awake. En route to Panama from San Francisco, the vessel had a passenger list that included individuals who had struck it rich during the gold rush. Although everyone made it safely to shore in the ship’s lifeboats, the atmosphere immediately following the wreck was frenzied as “every one was for himself, with no thought of anything but saving his life and his (gold) dust.” The Winfield Scott was a total loss, and its remains still lie submerged just north of the island.
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    Haunted Lighthouse by Laurel Hill
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    Newburyport Harbor Rear Range Lighthouse
    (A decommissioned lighthouse with a wicked cool twist!)



    Location: 61˝ Water St, Newburyport MA (The water is just on the other side of the houses)
    Height: 53 feet
    Built
    : 1873
    Decommissioned: 1963
    Purpose: This lighthouse was one of two lighthouses in Newburyport MA that safely guided vessels up the mouth of the Merrimack River to the city's harbor. Lighthouses called "range lights" by Americans (or "leading lights" by the British) are pairs of beacons, differing in location and height (front=lower, rear=higher), indicating a particular bearing called a "range" in America and a "leading line" in Britain, along which a vessel may safely transit a channel in otherwise shallow waters within an estuary etc. Think of them as the front and rear sights of a gun, and the trajectory of the bullet out of the barrel as the channel of safe transit. A vessel that sees the front and rear beacons, one exactly above the other, knows that it is in the channel. A vessel that sees the beacons thusly, either directly forward or directly aft, knows that it can safety move forward or aft and remain in the channel.

    The shorter Newburyport Harbor Front Range Lighthouse (shown below) is located about 300 feet east and 100 feet north of the Rear Range Lighthouse.



    In the map below, the Newburyport Harbor Front and Rear Range Lighthouses are located at the "t" in the word "Newburyport".



    However, that's not the "twist" I mentioned at the beginning of this post.

    Ranked in the “Top 35 Things to Do” by Yankee Magazine and as the “most romantic and exclusive dining” experience by Boston’s Phantom Gourmet, you can rent the lighthouse, specifically its dining area at the top — something that's not available anywhere else in the world! Proceeds go to The Lighthouse Preservation Society.

    Link to 360° panoramic view from lighthouse

    You can even do stuff like propose out on the balcony. Is that cool or what ?!

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    ... it's pretty difficult to wash up on an islamic lighthouse rock....
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    Kīlauea Point Lighthouse

    Photo of Red-footed booby and refuge
    Red-footed booby with Kīlauea Point refuge in background - Photo credit USFWS




    Built in 1913 as a navigational aid for commercial shipping between Hawai‘i and the Orient, Kīlauea Point Lighthouse stands as a monument to Hawai‘i’s colorful past. For 62 years, it guided ships and boats safely along Kaui‘i’s rugged north shore with it’s signature double-flash.

    In 1927, the lighthouse played a key role in the first trans-Pacific flight from the West Coast to Honolulu by reorienting the two lost pilots of the Bird of Paradise. In 1976, the Coast Guard deactivated the lighthouse and replaced it with an automatic beacon. In 1979, the lighthouse was placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Dedicated volunteers keep the lighthouse functional and on rare and special occasions, the Kīlauea Point Lighthouse lights the sky above Kaua‘i’s north shore.
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    The Taj Mahal is a representation of the 5 pillars of Islam. The 4 towers and the canal/pond that joins the gateway to the mausoleum represent the pillars separately. The mausolem represents the 5 pillars as the temple/nation of Islam. The 4 standing towers also represent the minarets of Islam that traditionally called people to prayer. In the spiritual sense these minarets represent lighthouses to the Islamic nation.

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  72. #272  
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    The Taj Mahal is an unbelievable architectural wonder, but I've never heard of it being referred to as representing lighthouses to the Islamic nation before. Anyway I would have posted that picture in the Backgrounds thread.
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    so are the cliffs of Dover.

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    The Tibetan Lighthouse

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    The Arc reflector campinion

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    I like this picture.

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    Makapuʻu Point Lighthouse is a 46-foot-tall (14 m), active United States Coast Guard lighthouse established in 1909. Construction for the lighthouse was prompted by the grounding of the steamer Manchuria in the predawn hours on August 20, 1906 on the reefs off Waimānalo. The lighthouse was automated in 1974 and its keepers quarters demolished in 1987, but the remnants are still visible. The lighthouse contains a roughly 12-foot-tall (3.7 m) French Fresnel hyper-radial lens, the largest lens in use in the United States.[1] The lens is able to magnify and intensify the illumination of a single electrical 1,000-watt, 120-volt light bulb. It was damaged by a vandal firing a bullet at it, but the lens is still in service as it is no longer reproducible. A popular day hike along the access road to the lighthouse begins at a parking lot located south of the Makapuʻu lookout on Kalanianaole Highway. A second trail leads from the remnants of the keepers quarters to the lighthouse, but it is off limits to the public. The lighthouse itself is also off limits to the public and is protected by three locked gates.[2]
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    Description: Located at the eastern end of Waikiki Beach, the Diamond Head Crater is a familiar landmark to the throngs of tourists who today pack the high-rise hotels in the area. For mariners of yesteryear, Diamond Head also served as a landmark for their approach to the harbor at Honolulu from the west coast of the United States.
    In the 1820s, sailors discovered what they believed were diamonds in the rocks on the volcano's slopes. Although the sailor's diamonds turned out to be clear calcite crystals, the name Diamond Head has been associated with the crater ever since.

    With the increase of commerce calling at the port of Honolulu, a lookout was established in 1878 on the seaward slopes of Diamond Head for spotting and reporting incoming vessels. John Charles Petersen, a mariner born in Sweden, was the first watchman at the station and was paid $50 per month. After his arrival in Hawai`i Petersen married a native girl who died just four months after the birth of their daughter Melika. Diamond Head Charlie raised his daughter at the isolated station where he served for thirty years until his death in 1907.




    Aerial view of Diamond Head Lighthouse
    Photograph courtesy U.S. Coast Guard

    During the night of October 2, 1893 the SS Miowera grounded on the reef just off Diamond Head. As Diamond Head was obscured that evening, the vessel's captain had mistaken the high land to the north of the crater as Diamond Head and had brought his ship too close to shore. All passengers and cargo were safely off-loaded, but it took six weeks to free the Miowera. Four years later, the magnificent steamship China also ran aground. It was widely believed that both of these incidents could have been avoided had a light been shown from Diamond Head.

    Captain James King, minister of the Interior for the Republic of Hawai`i, had been petitioning the Hawaiian legislature for a light on Diamond Head for several years, and according to the following account from the December 4, 1897 edition of the Pacific Commercial Advertiser steps were finally being taken to rectify the situation.

    Captain King became weary of hearing the pros and cons of the case, and after a few trips to the vicinity with Mr. Rowell, the Superintendent of Public Works, drove a stake for the site of the beacon. ... There was ordered at once the material for the illumination and for the towers. The iron for the structure has arrived and as soon as some road is made to the slope point, work on the structure will begin.

    The selected site was just 250 yards west of Charlie's lookout tower, and the original structure was a forty-foot-tall, iron, framework tower built by Honolulu Iron Works. Barbier and Benard of France manufactured the third-order Fresnel lens along with the lantern room for the tower. Due to concerns over the stability of the structure, the open framework was enclosed with walls constructed of coral-rock, excavated from a quarry on O`ahu. The light, which had a red sector to mark dangerous shoals and reefs, was first lit on July 1, 1899. A circular hole was left about midway up the tower so that Diamond Head Charlie could have an unobstructed view towards Barbers Point. John M. Kaukaliu was the first keeper of the Diamond Head Lighthouse, and as no keeper's dwelling was provided, he lived at a private residence about a quarter of a mile from the lighthouse.

    When the Lighthouse Board took control of all aids to navigation in the Hawaiian Islands in 1904, it reported that the Diamond Head Lighthouse was the only first-class lighthouse in the territory. However, during an inspection in 1916, it was noted that growing cracks in the structure were compromising the tower's integrity. In 1917, funds were allocated for constructing a fifty-five-foot tower of reinforced concrete on the original foundation.

    Scaffolding was built around the old tower and the original lantern room was removed and placed atop a new metal framework, allowing the continuous operation of the light. The old tower was then dismantled and replaced with the modern concrete structure, which strongly resembles the original tower. One notable difference is that the old tower had an external staircase that wrapped partway around the tower, whereas the new tower houses an internal, cast-iron, spiral stairway. When the tower was complete, the lantern room containing the Fresnel lens was placed atop the new lighthouse.

    The first keeper's dwelling at the station was built several yards west of the tower in 1921, three years after the new lighthouse was activated. Before that time, the keepers typically lived in a nearby village. A keeper occupied the dwelling for just three years, as the station was automated in 1924. Subsequently, the dwelling became home to Frederick Edgecomb, superintendent of the Nineteenth Lighthouse District. He lived at the lighthouse until 1939, when the Coast Guard assumed control of all lighthouses.

    During World War II, a Coast Guard radio station was housed in the keeper's dwelling, and a small structure was built on the seaward side of the tower. Following the war, the dwelling was remodeled and has since been home to the Commanders of the Fourteenth Coast Guard District. Rear Admiral Benjamin Engel moved into the dwelling in 1967 with his wife Ruth. The first view of her new home left Mrs. Engel speechless, as she had never lived in such a beautiful location nor had a lighthouse in her yard.

    The well manicured lawn adjacent to the Diamond Head Lighthouse is a perfect spot for entertaining, and the Engels hosted many a party for friends and visiting dignitaries. Rear Admiral Engel occasionally forgot to inform his wife exactly how many would be in attendance, but one party will never be forgotten by the Engels. During this gathering, Mrs. Engel was amazed at the number of people her husband had invited. While conversing with one of the unfamiliar guests, Mrs. Engel learned that a group of tourists had come to explore the Diamond Head Lighthouse and were simply delighted to discover that the Coast Guard was hosting an open house.

    Besides continuing its nightly vigil over the reefs at Diamond Head, the lighthouse also serves as one end of the finish line for the biennial Transpac Yacht Race, which starts 2,225 miles away in Long Beach, California. During the race, members of the Transpacific Yacht Club are allowed to use the tower as a lookout for recording finishing times. The road near the lighthouse is packed with people watching the beautiful yachts, under full sail, riding the trade winds towards Honolulu. Even when there isn't a race to watch, the pullouts near the lighthouse offer amazing views of the surf and those who are drawn to ride it.
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  79. #279  
    Forum Professor jrmonroe's Avatar
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    Aha, Diamond Head, now I get it.

    A funny story about the big "parties" given by the admiral.

    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    a lookout was established in 1878 on the seaward slopes of Diamond Head for spotting and reporting incoming vessels
    Any indication who the lookout would report to and how and why? It sounds recent enough to be by telephone, but could have been by telegraph.
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    Quote Originally Posted by jrmonroe View Post
    Aha, Diamond Head, now I get it.

    A funny story about the big "parties" given by the admiral.

    Quote Originally Posted by babe View Post
    a lookout was established in 1878 on the seaward slopes of Diamond Head for spotting and reporting incoming vessels
    Any indication who the lookout would report to and how and why? It sounds recent enough to be by telephone, but could have been by telegraph.
    No idea.
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    This lighthouse is about 15 miles north of me.....I have been here many times...


    Description: In the late nineteenth century sugar plantations were prospering on the Big Island. Six plantations in North Kohala, the area that includes the island’s north shore, used a couple of crude landings along that rugged coastline for exporting their products. Steers would pull heavy wagons full of sugar or molasses to the landings where, braving high surf and swell, men loaded the cargo onto flatboats, which would transport the goods offshore to awaiting steamers.
    In winter, the use of the landings was often too risky due to large breakers, so the sugarcane byproducts were transported over the hill to Mahukona, a protected small cove on the leeward side of the island. In 1881, Samuel G. Wilder, owner of a steamship company, initiated work on the Big Island’s first railroad that would solve the Kohala plantations’ transportation problem by connecting them to the port at Mahukona. Wilder started with improving Mahukona port through the addition of numerous wharfs and a storehouse. By March of that year, the first section of ties and tracks had been laid, using 100 Chinese as workers under the supervision of twenty Caucasians. In January of 1883, the tracks covered almost twenty miles, reaching the northernmost sugar fields of Niulii, and the Hawaiian Railroad was complete. The steam locomotives traveled twelve miles per hour, crossing seventeen gulches and rounding twenty-five sharp curves. The train was a novelty for locals, and tourists were visiting from Hilo to take a ride. Plantation owners were also pleased with the new railroad as their revenues started to surge.

    In 1889, Charles L. Wight, president of the Hawaiian Railroad Company, requested the construction of a light to mark the port at Mahukona. “Foreign vessels call here about every three weeks and they often lose much time not knowing where to come in. In thick weather it is also hard for steamers to find the place. In addition it will be of material assistance to the vessels bound up the channel.”




    First Mahukona Lighthouse
    Photograph courtesy National Archives

    Wight suggested that the light be built on a ridge south of the harbor and estimated that it could be constructed for around $250 and then maintained by a local for $12.50 a month. Wight also voiced his opinion on who should construct the light. “I do not believe that it will be economy to send men from Honolulu. Wages are higher there and generally men coming from there are apt to make a holiday of a trip of that kind. I would accordingly suggest waiting till men from this district are available.”

    The light was built south of the anchorage at Mahukona according to Wight’s suggestions and took the shape of a truncated cone that tapered from a bottom diameter of twelve feet to an upper diameter of three feet. The tower was built of rock, covered with a thick layer of mortar, and topped by three feet of solid concrete. A ladder ran up the outside of the tower to a platform on which a five-sided lantern was mounted. Framed in oak and finished in redwood, the lantern had three-quarter-inch glass plates on four of its faces, and a door in the fifth. The roof of the lantern was sheet brass, and inside a one-hundred-candlepower lamp was exhibited atop a nickel-plated brass stand.

    On August 5, 1889, W. D. Alexander, surveyor general, reported that the tower was complete and that the light, at a focal plane of seventy-five feet, was visible for ten miles. In 1915, the present twenty-two-foot concrete pyramidal tower was built near the original Mahukona Light, and the old tower was abandoned.

    The Mahukona port was closed at the onset of World War II for security reasons, hurting the fortunes of the railroad. However, efficient trucks for hauling the sugar cane had already been introduced and a special thoroughfare known as Pratt Road was dug for the vehicles. After the 1945 season, the train ceased operation. The five sugar mills of North Kohala sugar consolidated in 1937, but due to cheaper labor available elsewhere - Hawaiian sugar workers earned $3 an hour in 1968 for a 40-hour week while those in Haiti, the Philippines, or Indonesia would work for 9 cents an hour - production on Hawai'i stopped in the early 1970s.

    The harbor at Mahukona is now part of Mahukona Beach Park, which is a popular spot for swimming, snorkeling, and camping. The remains of the original tower can still be seen just north of the current Mahukona Light.
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